This Professional Master’s Degree in Speech and Orofacial Neurorehabilitation for Nurses will generate a sense of confidence in the performance of your profession as a nurse, which will help you grow both personally and professionally"

OMT (Orofacial and Myofunctional Therapy) is a discipline that deals with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis and intervention in orofacial alterations or dysfunctions at the anatomical and functional level of the stomatognathic system. This discipline is related to the development of basic functions such as chewing, swallowing, sucking, breathing and simultaneously treating the muscular structures that intervene synergistically in each of these functions. 

There is a broad professional demand for training to acquire the necessary competencies to enable the nurse to provide a comprehensive and complete health and clinical response. In this sense, nursing professionals will benefit from this training program, as it integrates the vision of multiple disciplines that converge to offer a better treatment to the patient.

This training in the form of a  master in Speech Neurorehabilitation and Analysis of Vital Functions and OMT (Orofacial and Myofunctional Therapy), responds to this demand for continuing education, and is aimed primarily at nursing professionals. With this training course, the nurse will acquire skills to manage speech disorders or disorders of a logopedic nature in different work contexts. In addition, these studies can ease the access to employment in this field, due to the high demand for this type of professionals, both in the health and clinical fields.

This Professional Master’s Degree is developed by a specialized work team, formed by several health professionals, creating a multidisciplinary team and integrating the information in a linear and continuous way. At the same time, it offers a very broad vision of orofacial and myofunctional therapy, including examples of successful cases, using all the necessary and basic techniques for the rehabilitation of orofacial alteration, offered and guaranteed by professionals in the field who recognize and certify their application in professional activity. 

Through this Professional Master’s Degree, you will update your knowledge in Speech Therapy Neurorehabilitation and you will become a first rate nurse"

This Professional Master’s Degree in Speech and Orofacial Neurorehabilitation for Nurses contains the most complete and up to date educational program on the market. Development of clinical cases presented by experts in the different areas of multidisciplinary knowledge. 

  • The development of a large number of case studies presented by experts in speech therapy neurorehabilitation. The graphic, schematic, and eminently practical contents with which they are created provide scientific and practical information on the disciplines that are essential for professional practice. 
  • New advances in the use of speech-language neurorehabilitation. 
  • Practical exercises where the self-assessment process can be carried out to improve learning. 
  • Algorithm-based interactive learning system for decision-making in the situations that are presented to the student. 
  • Special emphasis on evidence-based methodologies in speech-language neurorehabilitation. 
  • Theoretical lessons, questions to the Postgraduate Diploma, debate forums on controversial topics, and individual reflection assignments. 
  • Content that is accessible from any fixed or portable device with an Internet connection. 

This Professional Master’s Degree may be the best investment you can make in the selection of a refresher program for two reasons: in addition to updating your knowledge in speech-language neurorehabilitation for nurses, you will obtain a Professional Master’s Degree from TECH Technological University"

It includes in its teaching staff professionals belonging to the field of speech therapy neurorehabilitation who bring to this training the experience of their work, as well as recognized specialists belonging to reference societies and prestigious universities.

The multimedia content developed with the latest educational technology will provide the professional with situated and contextual learning, i.e., a simulated environment that will provide an immersive training program to train in real situations.

The design of this program is based on problem-based learning, by means of which the professional must try to solve the different professional practice situations that arise throughout the course. For this purpose, the professional will be assisted by an innovative interactive video system developed by recognized experts in the field of speech therapy neurorehabilitation with extensive teaching experience. 

Make the most of the opportunity to learn about the latest advances in speech-language neurorehabilitation and improve your skills as a nurse"

This program will allow you to increase your confidence in decision making, as it will update your knowledge and turn you into a first rate nurse"


The structure of the contents has been designed by a team of professionals from the best educational centers, universities and companies in the national territory, aware of the relevance of current training in order to intervene in the training and support of students, and committed to quality teaching through new educational technologies. This complete syllabus will enable the nurse to better understand the fundamentals of neurological rehabilitation, and will allow them to practice their profession with greater confidence. 

This Professional Master’s Degree in Speech and Orofacial Neurorehabilitation for Nurses contains the most complete and up to date scientific program on the market"


Module 1. Introduction to Neurorehabilitation I: Basic Fundamentals of Neuroanatomy

1.1. History of the Discovery of the Brain.

1.1.1. History of the Discovery of the Brain.
1.1.1. Introduction.
1.1.2. Stages in the History of the Brain: Mind vs. Brain. From Antiquity to the 2nd Century. From the 11th to the 17th Century. From the 19th Century to the Present.

1.1.3. A Modern View of the Brain.
1.1.4. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation.
1.1.5. Conclusions.
1.1.6. Bibliography. 

1.2. Introduction to the Nervous System.

1.2.1. Introduction.
1.2.2. The Neuron. Anatomy of Cells. Cell Functions. Classification of Neurons. Support Cells or Glia.

1.2.3. Transmission of Information. Action Potentials. Resting Potential. Potential for Action. Postsynaptic Potential, Local or Graded.

1.2.4. Neural Circuits.
1.2.5. Hierarchical Neural Organization. Introduction. Features.

1.2.6. Brain Plasticity.
1.2.7. Conclusions.

1.3. Neurodevelopment.

1.3.1. Introduction.
1.3.2. Phases of Brain Development. Neurogenesis: Proliferation Cell Migration. Cell Differentiation. Synaptogenesis. Apoptosis: Neuronal Death. Myelination.

1.3.3. Brain Maturation from Birth to Adolescence.
1.3.4. Actuation Systems in the Newborn: Reflexes.
1.3.5. Alarm Signs.
1.3.6. Conclusions.
1.3.7. Bibliography. 

1.4. Central Nervous System.

1.4.1. Introduction.
1.4.2. Peripheral Nervous System.
1.4.3. Central Nervous System. CNS Protection System: Meninges. CNS Irrigation. Spinal Cord Brain. Introduction. Structure. Brain Stem. Rhombencephalon or Hindbrain. Midbrain or Midbrain. Prosencephalon or Forebrain. 

1.4.4. Conclusions.
1.4.5. Bibliography. 

1.5. Structural and Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex.

1.5.1. Introduction.
1.5.2. Brodmann's Map.
1.5.3. Cerebral Hemispheres and Cerebral Cortex: Structural Organization. Circumvolutions and Main Sulci.Cerebral Lobes. Structure of the Cerebral Cortex. White Matter. Association Fibers. Commissural Fibers. Projection Fibers.

1.5.4. Cortical Areas: Functional Organization.
1.5.5. Conclusions.
1.5.6. Bibliography. 

1.6. Spinal Cord Pathways.

1.6.1. Spinal Cord.
1.6.2. Ascending Spinal Cord Tracts.
1.6.3. Anatomical Organization.
1.6.4. Functions and Injuries of the Ascending Pathways.
1.6.5. Descending Spinal Cord Tracts.
1.6.6. Anatomical Organization.
1.6.7. Functions of the Descending Pathways.
1.6.8. Descending Tract Injuries.
1.6.9. Sensory Receptors.
1.6.10. Anatomical Types of Receptors.

1.7. Cranial Nerves.

1.7.1. Basic Vocabulary.
1.7.2. Introduction. 
1.7.3. History
1.7.4. Components.
1.7.5. Classification. 
1.7.6. Pathologies. 
1.7.7. Summary.

1.8. Spinal Nerves.

1.8.1. Introduction.
1.8.2. Components.
1.8.3. Dermatomes.
1.8.4. Plexuses.
1.8.5. Cervical Plexus.
1.8.6. Brachial Plexus.
1.8.7. Lumbar Plexus.
1.8.8. Sacral Plexus.
1.8.9. Pathologies.

1.9. Autonomic Nervous System. 

1.9.1. Basic Vocabulary.
1.9.2. Generalities of the Autonomic Nervous System. 
1.9.3. Functions of the SNA.
1.9.4. Somatic Nervous System Vs. Autonomic Nervous System.
1.9.5. Organisation.
1.9.6. Sympathetic ANS.
1.9.7. Parasympathetic ANS.
1.9.8. Enteric Nervous System
1.9.9. Alterations in the Autonomic Nervous System.

1.10. Motor Control

1.10.1. Somatosensory System.
1.10.2. Upper Motor Circuit.
1.10.3. Movement.
1.10.4. Introduction to Motor Control.
1.10.5. Clinical Applications of Motor Control and Learning in Neurorehabilitation. 
1.10.6. Neurological Involvement.
1.10.7. Global Summary. 

Module 2. Introduction to Neurorehabilitation II: Relationship with Speech Therapy

2.1. Etiology of Brain Injury.

2.1.1. Introduction. 
2.1.2. Vascular Disorders. Occlusive Syndrome. Types of Cerebrovascular Disease. Neuropsychological Alterations in Stroke.

2.1.3. Intracranial Neoplasms. General Characteristics. Tumor Classification. Neuropsychological Alterations in Tumors.

2.1.4. Cranioencephalic Trauma (TCE). General Characteristics. Types of TCE. Alterations in TCE.

2.1.5. Neurodegenerative Diseases. General Characteristics. Types and Alterations.

2.1.6. Epilepsy. General Characteristics. Classification.

2.1.7. Central Nervous System Infections. General Characteristics. Classification.

2.1.8. Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulation and its Alterations. General Characteristics. Disorders.

2.1.9. Global Summary.  

2.2. Cognitive Functions I: Attention, Perception and Memory.

2.2.1. Introduction to Cognitive Functions.
2.2.2. Warning System. Concept. Evaluation. Alterations.

2.2.3. Attention Focused/selective Attention. Concept. Evaluation. Abnormalities Sustained Attention. Concept. Evaluation. Alterations. Alternate Care. Concept. Evaluation. Alterations. Divided Attention. Concept. Evaluation. Alterations. 

2.2.4. Memory Concept. Process. Classification. Evaluation. Alterations.

2.2.5. Perception. Concept. Evaluation. Alterations.

2.3. Cognitive Functions II: Language and Executive Functions.

2.3.1. Conceptualization of Executive Functions
2.3.2. Evaluation of Executive Functions.
2.3.3. Alterations of Executive Functions.
2.3.4. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Syndrome.
2.3.5. Orbitofrontal Syndrome.
2.3.6. Mesial Frontal Syndrome.
2.3.7. Conceptualization of Language.
2.3.8. Language Assessment.
2.3.9. Language Disorders.

2.4. Neuropsychological Assessment.

2.4.1. Introduction.
2.4.2. Objectives of the Neuropsychological Evaluation.
2.4.3. Variables influencing the Evaluation.
2.4.4. Diffuse Vs. Local Brain Damage.
2.4.5. Location and Size of the Lesion.
2.4.6. Depth of the Lesion.
2.4.7. Distant Effects of the Injury.
2.4.8. Disconnection Syndrome.
2.4.9. Time of Evolution of the Lesion.
2.4.10. Intrinsic Patient-related Intrinsic Variables.
2.4.11. Quantitative Vs. Qualitative Evaluation.
2.4.12. Stages in the Neuropsychological Evaluation Process.
2.4.13. Clinical History and Establishment of Therapeutic Relationship.
2.4.14. Test Administration and Correction.
2.4.15. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results, Preparation of the Report and Return of the Information.

2.5. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation and its Application in Speech Therapy. 

2.5.1. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation I: Cognitive Functions. Introduction.

2.5.2. Attention and Perception. Training of the Attentional Process. Effectiveness. Virtual Reality

2.5.3. Memory Basic Principles. Memory Strategies. Virtual Reality

2.5.4. Praxias. Strategies for Stimulation. Specific Tasks.

2.5.5. Language General Advice. Specific Tasks.

2.5.6. Executive Functions (FF.EE.) General Advice. Stimulation of the FF.EE. Sohlberg and Mateer. Techniques for Treatment of Executive Deficits. Specific Tasks. Effectiveness.

2.5.7. Summary.
2.5.8. Bibliography.

2.6. Behavioral Rehabilitation and its Application in Speech Therapy.

2.6.1. Introduction. E-R-C Reference Model. Orientations/currents. Characteristics of Behavior Modification. Behavior Modification Techniques: General Use/Specific Use.

2.6.2. Behavioral Assessment: Observation. Define Target Behavior. Select Measurement Method. Record Sheets. Contextual Aspects of What is Observed.

2.6.3. Operant Techniques: Development of Behaviors. Introduction. Theoretical Concepts. Reinforcement Programs. Molded. Chaining. Fading. Negative Reinforcement. Scope of Application.

2.6.4. Operant Techniques: Reduction of Behaviors. Introduction. Extinction. Time Out. Response Cost. Scope of Application.

2.6.5. Operant Techniques: Contingency Organization Systems. Introduction. Token Economy. Behavioral Contracts. Scope of Application.

2.6.6. Modeling Techniques. Introduction. Procedure. Modeling Techniques. Areas of Applications.

2.6.7. Frequent behaviour in the Logopedic Field. Impulsive. Apathy. Disinhibition. Anger or Aggressiveness.

2.6.8. Conclusion.

2.7. Rehabilitation in Occupational Therapy and its Application in Speech Therapy.

2.7.1. Occupational Therapy.
2.7.2. Influence of Body Posture on Speech Therapy.
2.7.3. Body Posture.
2.7.4. Adaptations to Body Posture.
2.7.5. Neurorehabilitation Techniques: BOBATH, AFFOLTER, BASAL STIMULATION.
2.7.6. Adaptations/supportive Products Useful in Speech Therapy Rehabilitation.
2.7.7. Objective of Occupational Therapy as an Integrating Medium.

2.8. Child Neuropsychology.

2.8.1. Introduction.
2.8.2. Child Neuropsychology: Definition and General Fundamentals.
2.8.3. Etiology. Genetic and Environmental Factors. Classification. Neurodevelopment Disorders Acquired Brain Injury.

2.8.4. Neuropsychological Assessment. General Aspects and Evaluation Phases. Assessment Tests

2.8.5. Neuropsychological Intervention. Family Intervention. Intervention in the Educational Field.

2.8.6. Development of Cognitive Functions. Early Childhood (0-2 years). Preschool Period (2-6 years). School Period (6-12 years). Adolescence (12-20 years).

2.8.7. Conclusions.
2.8.8. Bibliography.

2.9. Family Approach and Therapy.

2.9.1. Introduction.
2.9.2. Family Care in the Acute and Subacute Phase. Acute Phase Hospital Stay. Subacute Phase: The Return Home. What about after Rehabilitation?

2.9.3. The Family as Part of the Rehabilitation Process.
2.9.4. Needs Raised by the Family during the Rehabilitation Process.
2.9.5. The Rehabilitation Team.
2.9.6. Conclusions.
2.9.7. Bibliography.

2.10. Example of Transdisciplinary Rehabilitation: Clinical Case.

2.10.1. Clinical Case.
2.10.2. Theories of a TCE. 
2.10.3.  Broca's Aphasia. Pathological Correlates and Associated Alterations in Broca's Aphasia. 
2.10.4.  Neuropsychological Evaluation.  
2.10.5.  Neuropsychological Profile. 
2.10.6.  Results 
2.10.7.  Deficits and Potentials.  
2.10.8.  Course and Treatment of the Injury.  
2.10.9.  Specific Objectives for Patients with Broca's Aphasia. 
2.10.10.  Basic Fundamentals of Rehabilitation. 

Module 3. Anatomy and Physiology of the Voice 

3.1. Anatomy of the Voice.

3.1.1. Laryngeal Anatomy.
3.1.2. Respiratory Structures Involved in Phonation. Chest. Airways. Respiratory Musculature.

3.1.3. Laryngeal Structures Involved in Phonation. Laryngeal Bone Skeleton. Laryngeal Cartilages. Joints. Musculature. Innervation.

3.1.4. Structures of the Vocal Tract Involved in Phonation. Linear Source-Filter Model. Non-linear Source-Filter Model.

3.2. Voice Physiology.

3.2.1. Histology of Vocal Folds.
3.2.2. Biomechanical Properties of the Vocal Folds.
3.2.3. Mucoondulatory Theory and Aerodynamic-Myoelastic Theory.

3.3. The Pathological Voice.

3.3.1. Euphonia Vs. Dysphonia.
3.3.2. Vocal Fatigue.
3.3.3. Acoustic Signs of Dysphonia.
3.3.4. Classification of Dysphonia.

3.4. Medical-surgical Treatment of Vocal Pathologies.

3.4.1. Phonosurgery.
3.4.2. Larynx Surgeries.
3.4.3. Dysphonia Medication.

3.5. Physical and Acoustic Aspects of the Voice.

3.5.1. Physical Aspects of the Voice. Types of Waves. Physical Properties of Sound Waves. Sound Transmission.

3.5.2. Acoustic Aspects of the Voice. Intensity Pitch. Quality

3.6. Objective Voice Evaluation.

3.6.1. Morphofunctional Exploration.
3.6.2. Electroglottography.
3.6.3. Aerodynamic Measurements.
3.6.4. Electromyography.
3.6.5. Video-chemography.
3.6.6. Acoustic Analysis.

3.7. Perceptual Evaluation.

3.7.1. GRBAS.
3.7.2. RASAT.
3.7.3. GBR Score.
3.7.4. CAPE-V.
3.7.5. VPAS.

3.8. Functional Assessment

3.8.1. Fundamental Frequency.
3.8.2. Phonetogram.
3.8.3. Maximum Phonatory Times.
3.8.4. Velo-Palatine Efficiency.
3.8.5. VHI.

3.9. Assessment of Vocal Quality.

3.9.1. Vocal Quality.
3.9.2. High Quality Voice Vs. Low Quality Voice.
3.9.3. Assessment of Vocal Quality in Voice Professionals.

3.10. Medical History.

3.10.1. The Importance of the Clinical History.
3.10.2. Characteristics of the Initial Interview.
3.10.3. Sections of the Clinical History and Implications in the Voice.
3.10.4. Proposal of an Anamnesis Model for Vocal Pathology.

Module 4. Vocal Rehabilitation

4.1. Speech Therapy for Functional Dysphonia.

4.1.1. Type I: Isometric Laryngeal Disorder.
4.1.2. Type II: Lateral Glottic and Supraglottic Contraction.
4.1.3. Type III: Anteroposterior Supraglottic Contraction.
4.1.4. Type IV: Conversion Aphonia/Dysphonia AND Psychogenic Dysphonia with Arched Vocal Chords.
4.1.5. Transitional Dysphonias of the Adolescent.

4.2. Speech Therapy for Organic Dysphonias.

4.2.1. Introduction.
4.2.2. Speech Therapy for Dysphonia of Congenital Organic Origin
4.2.3. Speech Therapy in Acquired Dysphonia of Organic Origin.

4.3. Speech Therapy Treatment of Organic-Functional Dysphonias.

4.3.1. Introduction.
4.3.2. Objectives in the Rehabilitation of Organic-Functional Pathologies.
4.3.3. Proposal of Exercises and Techniques According to the Rehabilitation Objective.

4.4. Voice in Acquired Neurological Problems.

4.4.1. Dysphonia of Neurological Origin.
4.4.2. Speech Therapy.

4.5. Childhood Dysphonia.

4.5.1. Anatomical Characteristics.
4.5.2. Vowel Characteristics.
4.5.3. Intervention.

4.6. Hygienic Therapy.

4.6.1. Introduction.
4.6.2. Harmful Habits and their Effect on the Voice.
4.6.3. Preventive Measures.

4.7. Semi-occluded Vocal Tract Exercises.

4.7.1. Introduction.
4.7.2. Justification.
4.7.3. TVSO.

4.8. Estill Voice Training as a Technique to Improve Vocal Function.

4.8.1. Jo Estill and the Creation of the Model.
4.8.2. Estill Voice Training Principles.
4.8.3. Description.

Module 5.  OMT (Orofacial/Myofunctional Therapy) and Early Childhood Care

5.1. Neonatal Development. 

5.1.1. Evolutionary Development in Neonates.
5.1.2. NBAS. Evaluation of Neonatal Behavior.
5.1.3. Early Diagnosis.
5.1.4. Neurological Diagnosis.
5.1.5. Habituation. 
5.1.6. Oral Motor Reflexes.
5.1.7. Body Reflexes.
5.1.8. Vestibular System. 
5.1.9. Social and Interactive Media.
5.1.10. Use of NBAS in High Risk Newborns.

5.2. Child Feeding Disorders.

5.2.1. Feeding Processes.
5.2.2. Physiology of Pediatric Swallowing.
5.2.3. Skill Acquisition Phases.
5.2.4. Deficits.
5.2.5. Multidisciplinary Work. 
5.2.6. Alert Symptomatology.
5.2.7. Premature Orofacial Development.
5.2.8. Power Supply Routes: Parenteral, Enteral, Tube, Gastrectomy, Oral (Diet with or without modification).
5.2.9. Gastroesophageal Reflux.

5.3. Neurodevelopment and Infant Feeding. 

5.3.1. Embryonic development
5.3.2. Appearance of Main Primary Functions.
5.3.3. Risk Factors.
5.3.4. Evolutionary Milestones.
5.3.5. Synaptic Function.
5.3.6. Immaturity.
5.3.7. Neurological Maturity.

5.4. Brain-motor Skills.

5.4.1. Innate Orofacial Motor Skills.
5.4.2. Evolution of Orofacial Motor Patterns.
5.4.3. Reflex Swallowing.
5.4.4. Reflex Breathing.
5.4.5. Reflex Suction.
5.4.6. Evaluation of Infant Oral Reflexes.

5.5. Breastfeeding.

5.5.1. Early Start.
5.5.2. Impact at the Orofacial Level.
5.5.3. Exclusivity.
5.5.4. Optimal Nutrition.
5.5.5. Spontaneous Maturation of Oral Musculature.
5.5.6. Muscle Mobility and Synergy. 
5.5.7. Position.
5.5.8. Therapeutic Recommendations.
5.5.9. Intellectual Development.
5.5.10. Intervention Programs

5.6. Early Feeding Techniques. 

5.6.1. Newborn Feeding.
5.6.2. Positioning Techniques.
5.6.3. Signs of Good Standing.
5.6.4. Key Therapeutic Recommendations.
5.6.5. Dairy and Non-Dairy Formulas.
5.6.6. Classification of Formulas. 
5.6.7. Bottle Use Techniques.
5.6.8. Techniques of Spoon Use.
5.6.9. Techniques for the Use of low-cut Glass.
5.6.10. Techniques of Use with Probe or Use of Alternative Feeding Systems.

5.7. Speech Therapy Intervention in Neonates. 

5.7.1. Evaluation of Primary Functions.
5.7.2. Re-education of Primary Neuromotor Dysfunctions.
5.7.3. Primary Intervention.
5.7.4. Individual Treatment Planning and Coordination.
5.7.5. Oral Motor Exercise Program I.
5.7.6. Oral Motor Exercise Program II.
5.7.7. Intervention with Families.
5.7.8. Early Motor Activation.

5.8. Alteration in Infantile Swallowing. Block 1 

5.8.1. Intake Analysis.
5.8.2. Assessment of Orofacial Structure and Functionality.
5.8.3. Malnutrition.
5.8.4. Respiratory Infections. Airway Unit.
5.8.5. Airway Unit.
5.8.6. Complementary Exploration.
5.8.7. Quantitative Exploration.
5.8.8. Nutritional Treatment.
5.8.9. Adaptive Treatment. Posture, Texture, Materials.
5.8.10. Performance Program.

5.9. Rehabilitative Treatment of Pediatric Oropharyngeal and Esophageal Dysphagia. 

5.9.1. Symptoms
5.9.2. Etiology.
5.9.3. Child with Neurological Damage. High Probability of Presenting Alteration.
5.9.4. Dysphagia in the Infant.
5.9.5. Phases of Normalized Swallowing in Pediatrics Vs. Pathological Swallowing.
5.9.6. Neurological Maturity: Cognitive, Emotional and Motor Coordination. 
5.9.7. Impossibility of Oral Feeding.
5.9.8. Early Care. High Probability of Recovery.

5.10. Alteration in Infantile Swallowing. Block 2 

5.10.1. Types. Neuroanatomical and Behavioral Classification.
5.10.2. Functional Maturational Dysphagia.
5.10.3. Degenerative Diseases.
5.10.4. Cardiorespiratory Pathologies.
5.10.5. Congenital Brain Damage.
5.10.6. Childhood Acquired Brain Injury (CBAI).
5.10.7. Craniofacial Syndromes.
5.10.8. Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Module 6. Evaluation and Intervention in Dysphagia of Neurological Origin in Adulthood

6.1. Swallowing. Definition and Anatomy.

6.1.1. Definition of Swallowing.
6.1.2. Anatomy of Swallowing. Structures. Oral Cavity. Pharynx. Laringe. Oesophagus

6.1.3. Anatomy of Swallowing. Neurological Control. Central Nervous System. Cranial Nerves. Autonomic Nervous System.

6.2. Swallowing. The Swallowing Process.

6.2.1. Swallowing Phases. Preoral Phase. Oral Phase. Oral Preparatory Phase. Oral Transport Phase. Pharyngeal Phase. Esophageal Phase.

6.2.2. Valve System.
6.2.3. Biomechanics of Swallowing. Swallowing of Liquids. Semi-solid Swallowing. Swallowing of Solids. Chewing.

6.2.4. Breathing-deglutition Coordination.

6.3. Introduction to Dysphagia.

6.3.1. Definition.
6.3.2. Etiology and Prevalence. Functional Causes. Organic Causes.

6.3.3. Classification. Types of Dysphagia. Severity of Dysphagia.

6.3.4. Differentiation of Structural Dysphagia versus Neurogenic Dysphagia.
6.3.5. Signs and Symptoms of Dysphagia.
6.3.6. Safety and Efficiency Concepts. Security Complications Efficacy Complications.

6.3.7. Dysphagia in Brain Injury.
6.3.8. Dysphagia in the Elderly.

6.4. Medical Assessment of Dysphagia.

6.4.1. Medical Anamnesis.
6.4.2. Assessment and Screening Scales. EAT-10. MECV-V. Volume-viscosity Clinical Examination Method. How to Perform the MECV-V? Useful Tips When Applying the MECV-V.

6.4.3. Instrumental Tests. Fibroendoscopy (FEES). Videofluoroscopy (VFD). Fibroendoscopy Vs. Videofluoroscopy. Pharyngoesophageal Manometry.

6.5. Speech Therapy Assessment of Dysphagia.

6.5.1. Medical History
6.5.2. General Patient Assessment. Physical Examination Cognitive Exploration.

6.5.3. Clinical Examination of the Patient. Valuation of Structures. Exploration of Oral Motor and Sensitivity. Assessment of Cranial Nerves. Assessment of Reflexes. Exploration of Swallowing by Phases ( Without Bolus). Use of Auscultation and Sound Assessment. Respiratory and Phonation Assessment.

6.5.4. Assessment in the Patient with Tracheostomy.
6.5.5. Severity and Quality of Life Scales.

6.6. Assessment of Nutritional Status.

6.6.1. Importance of Nutrition.
6.6.2. Screening Scales in Nutrition. Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002).

6.6.3. Nutritional Assessment
6.6.4. Malnutrition.
6.6.5. Dehydration.
6.6.6. Nutritional Supplements.
6.6.7. Alternatives to Oral Feeding. Enteral Nutrition. Naso/orenteral Tube Nutrition. Gastrostomy Nutrition. Comparison of the Kinds of Enteral Nutrition. Parenteral Nutrition.

6.7. Dysphagia Rehabilitation with Compensatory Techniques.

6.7.1. Rehabilitation Treatment Objectives.
6.7.2. Postural Techniques
6.7.3. Consistency Modifications.
6.7.4. Modification of the Volume and Speed of Intake.
6.7.5. Perceptual Modification of the Food.
6.7.6. New Textures.
6.7.7. Adaptation of Utensils for Ingestion.
6.7.8. Guidelines to the Patient and Family. Adaptation of the Environment. Drug Administration. Oral Hygiene.

6.8. Rehabilitation of Dysphagia with Rehabilitation Techniques I.

6.8.1. Inclusion/exclusion Criteria for Inclusion/exclusion to Treatment with Rehabilitative Techniques.
6.8.2. Swallowing Maneuvers.
6.8.3. Techniques to Exercise the Muscles Involved in Swallowing. Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy. Soft Tissue Manipulation. Sensory Enhancement Techniques. Specific Exercises for: Tongue. Lips/buccinators. Masticatory Muscles. Palate Veil. Techniques to Stimulate the Swallowing Reflex. Bolus Propulsion Exercises. Exercises for Laryngeal Elevation (Hyoid Excursion). Exercises to Improve Glottic Closure.

6.9. Rehabilitation of Dysphagia with Rehabilitation Techniques II.

6.9.1. Treatment of Dysphagia Based on Symptomatology. 
6.9.2. Breathing Treatment.
6.9.3. Positioning:
6.9.4. Diet Implementation.
6.9.5. Use of Botulinum Toxin.
6.9.6. Neuromuscular Taping. Rigid Bandages. Flexible Bandages.

6.9.7. Electrotherapy in Swallowing.
6.9.8. New Technologies.

6.10. Content to Help the Speech Therapist who Intervenes in Dysphagia.

6.10.1. CPR in Feeding.
6.10.2. Food Rheology.
6.10.3. Extra Information on Each of the Topics Studied.

Module 7. Dentistry and Orofacial Disorder

7.1. Dentition.

7.1.1. Introduction.
7.1.2. Dental Growth and Development.
7.1.3. Classification.
7.1.4. Primary Dentition.
7.1.5. Mixed Dentition.
7.1.6. Permanent Dentinization.
7.1.7. Dental Training and Development.

7.2. Normo Typical and Pathological Pattern. 

7.2.1. Introduction.
7.2.2. Appliances.
7.2.3. Dentolabial Deformities.
7.2.4. Eruptive Anomalies.  
7.2.5. Pathologic Pattern and Congenital Disorder.   
7.2.6. Evaluation and Clinical Examination.  
7.2.7. Clinical Intervention.   
7.2.8. Multidisciplinary Vision.   

7.3. Clinical Examination and Radiographic Analysis.

7.3.1. Introduction.
7.3.2. Panorama
7.3.3. Teleradiography.
7.3.4. Ricketts' Circular Analysis.
7.3.5. Steiner's Cephalometric Analysis.
7.3.6. Bone Radiography.
7.3.7. Bibliography.

7.4. Assessment

7.4.1. Introduction.
7.4.2. Functions of the Orofacial System.
7.4.3. Aesthetic / biofacial Analysis.
7.4.4. Anatomical-functional Evaluation.
7.4.5. Evaluation of the Functions of the Orofacial System.
7.4.6. Atypical Swallowing.
7.4.7. Myofunctional Evaluation Protocol.
7.4.8. Bibliography

7.5. Function and Form.

7.5.1. Introduction.
7.5.2. Alterations in Breathing and Swallowing.
7.5.3. Breathing and Swallowing.
7.5.4. Bruxism.
7.5.5. Joint and Mandibular Exploration I.
7.5.6. Joint and Mandibular Exploration I.
7.5.7. Study of Mandibular Dynamics.
7.5.8. Bibliography.

7.6. Speech Therapy Intervention.

7.6.1. Introduction.
7.6.2. Oral Respiration.
7.6.3. Oral Dysfunction.
7.6.4. Speech Therapy Intervention in Oral Breathing. 
7.6.5. Atypical Swallowing. 
7.6.6. Speech Therapy Intervention Atypical Swallowing. 
7.6.7. ATM. 
7.6.8. Speech Therapy Intervention in TMJ. 
7.6.7. Bibliography.

7.7. Occlusion and Malocclusion.

7.7.1. Introduction.
7.7.2. Temporary Occlusion. 
7.7.3. Development of Temporal Occlusion. 
7.7.3. Permanent Occlusion. 
7.7.4. Development of Permanent Occlusion. 
7.7.5. Physiological and Non-physiological Occlusion. 
7.7.6. Static and Dynamic Occlusion. 
7.7.7. Multidisciplinary Treatment. 
7.7.8. Bibliography. 

7.8. Main Classification of Occlusion.

7.8.1 Introduction 
7.8.2. Features. 
7.8.3. Anteroposterior Classification. 
7.8.4. Transverse Syndromes I. 
7.8.5. Transverse Syndromes II. 
7.8.6. Vertical Syndromes. 
7.8.7. Etiopathogenesis of Malocclusions. 
7.8.8. Bibliography.

7.9. Dentistry and Speech Therapy.

7.9.1. Introduction.
7.9.2. Multidisciplinary Work.
7.9.3. Extraoral Exploration.  
7.9.4. Intraoral Exploration.
7.9.5. Functional Exploration.
7.9.6. Orthodontics and Oral Function.
7.9.7. Bibliography.
7.9.8. Speech Therapy Intervention in Orofacial Disorder.

7.10. Case Studies

7.10.1. Introduction.
7.10.2. Case Study 1.
7.10.3. Case Study 2. 
7.10.4. Case Study 3.
7.10.5. Case Study 4. 
7.10.6. Bibliography. 

Module 8. Feeding Alteration in Congenital Neurological Disorder. PCI  

8.1. Evaluation of Main Vital Functions.

8.1.1. Breathing. 
8.1.2. Classification and Respiratory Pattern. 
8.1.3. Air Path Analysis. 
8.1.4. Chewing. 
8.1.5. Swallowing 
8.1.6. Structures of the Stomatognathic System Involved in Swallowing. 
8.1.7. Neurological Structures Involved in Swallowing. 
8.1.8. Neurological Control of Swallowing. 
8.1.9. Neurogenic Dysphagia. 
8.1.10. Relationship between Breathing and Swallowing. Importance of Swallowing Breathing Coordination during the Swallowing Process.

8.2. Structural Assessment Involved in Vital Functions.

8.2.1. Neurological Disorders and Stomatognathic Development. 
8.2.2. Cranial Nerve Evaluation. 
8.2.3. Development of Oral Functions. 
8.2.4. Facial Structure Growth. 
8.2.5. Orofacial System Disorders. 
8.2.6. Orofacial Maturation. 
8.2.7. Respiratory Structures. 
8.2.8. Facial Musculature. 
8.2.9. Oral Musculature. 
8.2.10. Laryngeal Musculature.

8.3. Functional Assessment of Intake.

8.3.1. Individualized Assessment of the Characteristics of Food. 
8.3.2. Evaluation of Oral Reflexes. 
8.2.3. Feeding and Cerebral Palsy, Main Associated Problems. 
8.3.3. Alterations in Safety and Efficacy. 
8.3.4. Clinical Examination of Swallowing. What Tests are Most Suitable for People with CP? 
8.3.5. Physical Exploration - Gross Motor Function and its Relation to Nutrition. 
8.3.6. Instrumental Exploration. 
8.3.7. Which Diagnostic Test is the Most Effective for Diagnosis of Dysphagia in People with CP? 
8.3.8. Importance of Interdisciplinary Work in the Evaluation of Dysphagia. How to Deal with Swallowing Assessment in People with CP? When Should I Refer? 

8.3.9. Procedure for Action in the Event of a Swallowing and/or Nutrition Problem.

8.4. Congenital Neurological Disorder.

8.4.1. Definition. 
8.4.2. Main Characteristics. 
8.4.3. Speech Therapy Intervention and Treatment. 
8.4.4. Multidisciplinary Neurorehabilitation Treatment. 
8.4.5. Symptoms 
8.4.6. Muscle Dysfunction. 
8.4.7. Active Control. 
8.4.8. Case Analysis.

8.5. Acquired Neurological Disorder.

8.5.1. Definition. 
8.5.2. Main Characteristics. 
8.5.3. Speech Therapy Intervention and Treatment. 
8.5.4. Multidisciplinary Neurorehabilitative Treatment. 
8.5.5. Symptoms 
8.5.6. Muscle Dysfunction. 
8.5.7. Active Control. 
8.5.8. Case Analysis.

8.6. Food Program.

8.6.1. 1st Phase: Postural, Oral and Nasal Hygiene. 
8.6.2. Implementation of New Oral Habits. 
8.6.3. Creation of Neuromotor Routines and Behaviors with High Frequency and Minimum Intensity. 
8.6.4. 2nd Phase: Intervention Program According to Structural Analysis. 
8.6.5. Creation of Individualized Programs. 
8.6.6. Selection of Favorable Oral Motor Exercises. 
8.6.7. 3rd Phase: Strategies and Competencies for Feeding. 
8.6.8. Positioning: 
8.6.9. Development of Strategies for Proper Oral Feeding. 
8.6.10. Enteral Feeding. 

8.7. Development of Strategies and Action Plan. 

8.7.1. Type of Power Supply. 
8.7.2. Adaptation of Texture and Consistency. 
8.7.3. Volume Modification 
8.7.4. Anticipation: Sensitive Strategies. 
8.7.5. Postural Adaptation Assessment. 
8.7.6. Importance of the Flavor and Presence of the Food without Forgetting the Safety Factor - Texturized Food. 
8.7.7. Ambience and Duration of Meals. 
8.7.8. Adequate Nutritional Contribution. 
8.7.9. Food-related Assistive Systems and Support Products. 
8.7.10. Case Analysis and Decision Making. 

8.8. Adaptations and Assistance from the Occupational Therapist. 

8.8.1. Functional Positioning Importance of the "Eater" and "Feeder". 
8.8.2. Technical Positioning Aids for the Feeding Person. 
8.8.3. Technical Positioning Aids for People with CP during Feeding. 
8.8.4. Food-related Support Products. 
8.8.5. Creation of Adaptations. 
8.8.6. Importance of Posture in Persons on Enteral Nutrition. Relevant Aspects. 
8.8.7. Participatory Feeding and Autonomy during Feeding. 
8.8.8. Occupational Therapy and Speech Therapy. 

8.9. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in PCI. 

8.9.1. Referrals and Multidisciplinary Team. 
8.9.2. Food Adaptation. 
8.9.3. Family and Medical Intervention. 
8.9.4. Evaluation of the Glutatory Process. 
8.9.5. Individualized Intervention. 
8.9.6. Texture and Volume Modification as Fundamental Aspects. 
8.9.7. Sensory Enhancement Techniques. 
8.9.8. How to Deal with Oral Sensitivity Problems? 
8.9.9. Postural Changes and Swallowing Facilitating Maneuvers. 
8.9.10. Drug Ingestion Aids / Oral Hygiene Products. 
8.9.11. Importance of Maintaining Intraoral Stimulation in People on Enteral Nutrition. 

8.10. Nutrition and Cerebral Palsy. 

8.10.1. Concept of Nutrition. Growth and Development. 
8.10.2. Relationship Between Nutrition and Brain Damage, Main Associated Problems. 
8.10.3. Importance of Maintaining an Adequate Nutritional Intake. 
8.10.4. Malnutrition, Malnutrition and Dehydration Concepts and Consequences. 
8.10.5. Basic and Necessary Nutrients. 
8.10.6. Importance of Nutritional Assessment and Follow-up in People with CP. 
8.10.7. Techniques to Achieve Adequate Nutritional Supply; Increased Caloric Density, Oral Modules, Oral Supplementation and Enteral Nutrition. 
8.10.8. Importance of Person-Centered Nutrition. Individualized Plan. 
8.10.9. Enteral Nutrition.

Module 9.  Feeding Problems in Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Autism

9.1. Definition and History.

9.1.1. Introduction. 
9.1.2. Conceptual Review. History Prevalence. DSM Inclusion. 

9.1.3. Current Classification. Change from DSM-IV to DSM-V. Autism Spectrum Disorder 299.00 (F84.0). Conclusion. Bibliography. 

9.2. Early Detection and Diagnosis.

9.2.1. Introduction. 
9.2.2. Communication and Social Interaction. 
9.2.3. Communication Skills. 
9.2.4. Social Interaction Skills. 
9.2.5. Flexibility of Behavior and Thinking. 
9.2.6. Sensory Processing. 
9.2.7. Scales and Instruments. 
9.2.8. Conclusion. 
9.2.9. Bibliography. 

9.3. Heterogeneity in Autism.

9.3.1. Introduction. 
9.3.2. Age-related Factors. 
9.3.3. Beginning of the Signs. 
9.3.4. Autism in Preschool Age. 
9.3.5. Autism at School Age. 
9.3.6. Autism in Adolescence. 
9.3.7. Autism in Adults. 
9.3.8. Sex-related Factors. 
9.3.9. Factors Related to Etiology. 
9.3.10. Conclusion. 

9.4. Comorbidity

9.4.1. Introduction. 
9.4.2. Expressive language Alterations. 
9.4.3. Most Prevalent Comorbid Disorders. 
9.4.4. ADHD. 
9.4.5. Anxiety and Depression. 
9.4.6. Obsessions and Compulsions. 
9.4.7. Dyssomnias and Parasomnias. 
9.4.8. Movement Abnormalities. 
9.4.9. Tourette's Syndrome. 
9.4.10. Alterations Associated with ASD in Childhood. 
9.4.11. High-functioning Autism. 
9.4.12. Family and Environment. 
9.4.13. Conclusion. 

9.5. Intervention with the Family and the Environment.

9.5.1. Introduction. 
9.5.2. Intervention with the Family. 
9.5.3. Referrals to Adapt the Family Situation. 
9.5.4. Intervention with the Environment. 
9.5.5. Family Therapy. 
9.5.6. Conclusion.

9.6. Nutrition in the Child with Autism. 

9.6.1. Introduction. 
9.6.2. Specific Characteristics in Food. 
9.6.3. Metabolism. 
9.6.4. Enzyme Deficiency. 
9.6.5. Food 

9.7. Specific Problems and Inadequate Intervention Patterns. 

9.7.1. Do Not Accept Spooned Food. 
9.7.2. Leaving Food in the Mouth. 
9.7.3. No Chewing. 
9.7.4. Hyperselectivity. 
9.7.5. Crying. 
9.7.6. Inadequate Guidelines. 
9.7.7. Recommendations 
9.7.8. Conclusion. 

9.8. Feeding Problems in children with Autism. 

9.8.1. Introduction. 
9.8.2. Strategies. 
9.8.3. National Reference Work Teams. 
9.8.4. Intervention Guidelines. 
9.8.5. Recommendations 
9.8.6. Order of Food Presentation. 
9.8.7. Conclusion. 

9.9. Clinical Case: Negative to Solid Food. 

9.9.1. Clinical History. Qualitative Assessment of Communication and Language. 
9.9.2. Structural and Functional Evaluation Orofacial. Intervention Strategies. 

9.9.3. Intervention Program. 
9.9.4. Breathing Function. Awareness and Control of Respiratory Functions. Nasal Hygiene. Postural Hygiene. Nasal Breathing and Nasal Murmur. Increase Olfactory Sensory Response. 

9.9.5. Power Function. 
9.9.6. Oral Sensitivity. Oral Hygiene. Oral Stimulation. 

9.9.7. Oral Motor Skills. Oral Stereognosia. Inhibition of the Gag Reflex. Flavor Stimulation. 

9.9.8. Relaxation of Masticatory Muscles. 
9.9.9. Chewing without Food. 
9.9.10. Chewing with Food 
9.9.11. Conclusions on Speech Therapy Intervention. 

9.10. Etiopathogenesis. 

9.10.1. Introduction. 
9.10.2. Endocrine System. 
9.10.3. Genetics and Heritability. 
9.10.4. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 
9.10.5. Oxytocinergic System. 
9.10.6. Conclusion. 
9.10.7. Bibliography. Conclusion. Bibliography.

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