Better trained veterinarians means longer life expectancy for animals. Don’t think twice and develop your skills in the field of Veterinary Cardiology with this complete Advanced Master’s Degree” 

In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the area of Veterinary Cardiology , favored by the appearance of many new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques that have achieved successful results in the treatment of animals with heart disease. 

Given these developments and the changing nature of the field, veterinary professionals must be in the habit of updating their knowledge in order to keep up with the applications of the most effective tools used in daily practice. That is the framework that structures this online Advanced Master’s Degree, complemented by the added benefit of all the latest developments in Veterinary Cardiology on the market today, both in small animals and larger species. 

When it comes to larger species, further study is still needed in the field. For example, Cardiology in ruminants and swine has been limited for a long time due to the scarce literature available and diagnostic limitations, especially in advanced therapeutic procedures. Similarly, equidae are often affected by heart disease due to the overexertion required of them, especially horses participating in sports competitions. That is why it is necessary to have specialized veterinarians who are able to improve animal health and quality of life. 

Furthermore, this specialization is aimed at professionals who normally have long working days, which prevents them from being able to continue specializing in traditional face-to-face classes, and who cannot find quality online programs adapted to their needs. Given this context of need, TECH presents this Advanced Master’s Degree in Veterinary Cardiology , which has come to revolutionize the world of veterinary specialization, both for its contents and for its teaching staff and innovative teaching methodology. 

What’s more, as it is a 100% online specialization, students decide where and when to take on the course load. Without the restrictions of fixed timetables or having to move between classrooms, this course can be combined with work and family life.

A highly scientific program, supported by advanced technological development and the teaching experience of the best professionals” 

This ##ESTUDIO## in Veterinary Cardiology contains the most complete and up-to-date scientific program on the market. The most important features include:  

  • The latest technology in e-learning software
  • Intensely visual teaching system, supported by graphic and schematic contents that are easy to assimilate and understand
  • The development of practical case studies presented by practicing experts
  • State-of-the-art interactive video systems
  • Teaching supported by telepractice
  • Continuous updating and recycling systems
  • Self-organized learning which makes the course completely compatible with other commitments
  • Practical exercises for self-assessment and learning verification
  • Support groups and educational synergies: questions to the expert, debates and knowledge forums
  • Communication with the teacher and individual reflection work
  • Content that is accessible from any fixed or portable device with an Internet connection
  • Supplementary documentation databases are permanently available, even after the program

Advances in Veterinary Cardiology make it necessary for clinicians to constantly update their knowledge in order to know how to implement the latest techniques in their daily work” 

Our teaching staff is made up of practicing professionals, ensuring that we offer the up-to-date information we intend to. A multidisciplinary staff of trained and experienced professionals from a variety of areas who will impart theoretical knowledge in an efficient manner, but above all, will contribute the practical knowledge derived from their experience to this program. 

Their command of the subject is complemented by the effectiveness of the methodological design used in this Advanced Master’s Degree. Developed by a multidisciplinary team of e-learning experts, it integrates the latest advances in educational technology. In this way, students will be able to study with a range of comfortable and versatile multimedia tools that will give them the operability needed throughout the program. 

The design of this program is based on Problem-Based Learning, an approach that views learning as a highly practical process. To achieve this remotely, we will use telepractice. With the help of an innovative, interactive video system and Learning from an Expert, students will be able to acquire the knowledge as if they were dealing with the case in real time. A concept that will allow students to integrate and memorize what they have learnt in a more realistic and permanent way. 

TECH offers you the opportunity to take an in-depth and complete look into the strategies and approaches used in Veterinary Cardiology "

A program created for professionals who aspire to excellence, and that will enable you to easily and effectively acquire new skills and strategies"


The contents of this specialization have been developed by different professors with a clear purpose: to ensure that students acquire each and every one of the skills necessary to become true experts in this field. The content of this course will allow you to learn all aspects of the different disciplines involved in this area. A complete and well-structured program will take you to the highest standards of quality and success. 

Through a very well compartmentalized development, you will be able to access the most advanced knowledge available today in Veterinary Cardiology ”

Module 1. Cardiac Embryology, Anatomy, Physiology and Pathophysiology

1.1. Cardiac and Vascular Embryology

1.1.1. Cardiac Embryology
1.1.2. Vascular Embryology

1.2. Cardiac and Vascular Anatomy and Histology

1.2.1. Cardiac Anatomy
1.2.2. Vascular Anatomy
1.2.3. Cardiac Histology
1.2.4. Vascular Histology

1.3. Normal Cardiovascular Physiology

1.3.1. Functions
1.3.2. Circulation Design
1.3.3. Contractibility

1.4. Normal Cardiovascular Physiology

1.4.1. Cardiac Cycle

1.5. Normal Cardiovascular Physiology

1.5.1. Blood Vessel Physiology
1.5.2. Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation

1.6. Cardiac Physiopathology

1.6.1. Cardiovascular Regulation

1.7. Cardiac Physiopathology

1.7.1. Hemodynamic Concepts
1.7.2. Cardiac Output. What Does it Depend On?

1.8. Cardiac Physiopathology

1.8.1. Valvulopathies

1.9. Cardiac Physiopathology

1.9.1. Pericardium
1.9.2. Cardiomyopathies
1.9.3. Vascular Physiopathology

1.10. Cardiac Physiopathology

1.10.1. Pulmonary Edema

Module 2. Heart Failure Cardiac Pharmacology

2.1. Congestive Heart Failure

2.1.1. Definition
2.1.2. Pathophysiological Mechanisms
2.1.3. Pathophysiological Consequences

2.2. Dietary Hygiene Management. Communication with Owners

2.2.1. Communication with Owners
2.2.2. Feeding in the Cardiac Patient

2.3. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACE Inhibitors)

2.3.1. Mechanism of Action
2.3.2. Types
2.3.3. Indications
2.3.4. Posology
2.3.5. Side Effects
2.3.6. Contraindications

2.4. Pimobendan and Other Inotropics

2.4.1. Pimobendan Mechanism of Action Indications Posology Side Effects Contraindications

2.4.2. Sympathomimetics Mechanism of Action Indications Posology Side Effects Contraindications

2.4.3. Others

2.5. Diuretics

2.5.1. Mechanism of Action
2.5.2. Types
2.5.3. Indications
2.5.4. Posology
2.5.5. Side Effects:
2.5.6. Contraindications

2.6. Antiarrhythmics (1)

2.6.1. Preliminary Considerations
2.6.2. Classification of Antiarrhythmics
2.6.3. Class 1 Antiarrhythmics

2.7. Antiarrhythmics (2)

2.7.1. Class 2 Antiarrhythmics
2.7.2. Class 3 Antiarrhythmics
2.7.3. Class 4 Antiarrhythmics

2.8. Antihypertensive Drugs

2.8.1. Venous
2.8.2. Arterials
2.8.3. Mixed
2.8.4. Pulmonary

2.9. Anticoagulants

2.9.1. Heparins
2.9.2. Clopidogrel
2.9.3. IAAS
2.9.4. Others

2.10. Other Drugs Used in the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease

2.10.1. Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists II
2.10.2. Spironolactone (Fibrosis and Antiremodeling Study)
2.10.3. Carvedilol
2.10.4. Positive Chronotropics
2.10.5. Atropine (Atropine Test)
2.10.6. Taurine in CMD
2.10.7. Atenolol in Stenosis
2.10.8. Atenolol or Diltiazem in Obstructive HCM

Module 3. Anamnesis and Cardiovascular Examination

3.1. Cardiovascular and Respiratory Anamnesis

3.1.1. Epidemiology of Heart Disease
3.1.2. Medical History General Symptoms Specific Symptoms

3.2. Cardiovascular and Respiratory Examination

3.2.1. Respiratory Pattern
3.2.2. Exploration of the Head
3.2.3. Neck Exploration
3.2.4. Examination of the Thorax
3.2.5. Examination of the Abdomen
3.2.6. Other Explorations

3.3. Auscultation (I)

3.3.1. Physical Principles
3.3.2. Phonendoscope
3.3.3. Technique
3.3.4. Heart Sounds

3.4. Auscultation (II)

3.4.1. Murmurs
3.4.2. Pulmonary Auscultation

3.5. Cough

3.5.1. Definition and Pathophysiological Mechanisms
3.5.2. Differential Diagnoses and Diagnostic Algorithm for Cough

3.6. Dyspnoea

3.6.1. Definition and Pathophysiological Mechanisms
3.6.2. Differential Diagnoses and Diagnostic Algorithm for Dyspnoea

3.7. Syncope

3.7.1. Definition and Pathophysiological Mechanisms
3.7.2. Differential Diagnoses and Diagnostic Algorithm for Syncope

3.8. Cyanosis

3.8.1. Definition and Pathophysiological Mechanisms
3.8.2. Differential Diagnoses and Diagnostic Algorithm for Syncope

3.9. Arterial and Central Pressure Venous Pressure

3.9.1. Arterial Pressure
3.9.2. Central Venous Pressure

3.10. Laboratory Tests and Cardiac Markers

3.10.1. Laboratory Tests in Heart Disease
3.10.2. Cardiac Biomarkers
3.10.3. Genetic Tests

Module 4. Complementary Tests. Diagnostic Imaging

4.1. Principles of Radiology

4.1.1. Physical Fundamentals of X-ray Production
4.1.2. X-ray Machine
4.1.3. Selection of mAs and KV
4.1.4. Types of Radiology

4.2. Radiographic Technique in Thoracic Radiology

4.2.1. Radiographic Technique
4.2.2. Positioning

4.3. Thoracic Radiography (I)

4.3.1. Assessment of a Thoracic Radiography
4.3.2. Diseases of Extrathoracic Structures

4.4. Thoracic Radiology (II)

4.4.1. Tracheal Diseases
4.4.2. Mediastinal Diseases

4.5. Thoracic Radiology (III)

4.5.1. Diseases of the Pleura
4.5.2. Diseases of the Esophagus

4.6. Cardiac Silhouette (1)

4.6.1. Assessment of Normal Cardiac Silhouette
4.6.2. Size
4.6.3. Topography

4.7. Cardiac Silhouette (2)

4.7.1. Diseases Affecting the Heart
4.7.2. Diseases

4.8. Pulmonary Parenchyma (1)

4.8.1. Assessment of Normal Lung Parenchyma
4.8.2. Pulmonary Patterns (1)

4.9. Pulmonary Parenchyma (2)

4.9.1. Pulmonary Patterns (2)
4.9.2. Radiologic Findings in Pulmonary Parenchymal Diseases

4.10. Other Tests

4.10.1. Pulmonary Ultrasound Scan
4.10.2. Bubble Study

Module 5. Complementary Tests. Electrocardiogram

5.1. Anatomy of the Conduction System and Action Potentials

5.1.1. Sinus Node and Supraventricular Conduction Pathways
5.1.2. Atrioventricular Node and Ventricular Conduction Pathways
5.1.3. Action Potential Pacemaker Cells Contractile Cells

5.2. Obtaining a High-Quality Electrocardiographic Tracing

5.2.1. Limb-Led System
5.2.2. Precordial-Led System
5.2.3. Artifact Reduction

5.3. Sinus Rhythm

5.3.1. Typical Electrocardiographic Characteristics of Sinus Rhythm
5.3.2. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia
5.3.3. Non-Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia
5.3.4. Wandering Pacemaker
5.3.5. Sinus Tachycardia
5.3.6. Sinus Bradycardia
5.3.7. Intraventricular Conduction Blocks

5.4. Electrophysiological Mechanisms Causing Arrhythmias

5.4.1. Stimulus Formation Disorders Altered Normal Automatism Abnormal Automatism Triggered Activity: Late Postpotentials Triggered Activity: Early Postpotentials

5.4.2. Impulse Conduction Disorders Anatomical Re-Entry Functional Re-Entry

5.5. Supraventricular Arrhythmias (I)

5.5.1. Atrial Premature Complexes
5.5.2. Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia
5.5.3. Atrioventricular Junctional Tachycardia
5.5.4. Accessory Conduction Routes

5.6. Supraventricular Arrhythmias (II): Atrial Fibrillation

5.6.1. Anatomical and Functional Substrate
5.6.2. Hemodynamic Consequences
5.6.3. Treatment for Frequency Control
5.6.4. Treatment for Rhythm Control

5.7. Ventricular Arrhythmias

5.7.1. Ventricular Premature Complexes
5.7.2. Monomorphic Ventricular Tachycardia
5.7.3. Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia
5.7.4. Idioventricular Rhythm

5.8. Bradyarrhythmias

5.8.1. Sick Sinus Disease
5.8.2. Atrioventricular Block
5.8.3. Atrial Silence

5.9. Holter

5.9.1. Holter Monitoring Indications
5.9.2. Equipment
5.9.3. Interpretation

5.10. Advanced Treatment Techniques

5.10.1. Pacemaker Implantation
5.10.2. Radiofrequency Ablation

Module 6. Complementary Tests. Echocardiography

6.1. Introduction: Ultrasound and Equipment

6.1.1. Ultrasound Physics
6.1.2. Equipment and Transducers
6.1.3. Doppler
6.1.4. Artefacts

6.2. Echocardiographic Examination

6.2.1. Patient Preparation and Positioning
6.2.2. 2D Two-Dimensional Echocardiography Echocardiographic Slicing Two-Dimensional Imaging Controls M Mode Spectral Doppler Color Doppler Tissue Doppler

6.3. Measurements and Assessment of 2D and M-mode Images

6.3.1. General Aspects
6.3.2. Left Ventricle and Mitral Valve
6.3.3. Left Atrium
6.3.4. Aorta
6.3.5. Right Ventricle and Tricuspid Valve
6.3.6. Right Atrium and Caval Veins
6.3.7. Pulmonary Trunk and Arteries
6.3.8. Pericardium

6.4. Doppler Measurements and Assessment

6.4.1. General Aspects Alignment Laminar and Turbulent Flow Hemodynamic Information

6.4.2. Spectral Doppler: Aortic and Pulmonary Flow
6.4.3. Spectral Doppler: Mitral and Tricuspid Flow
6.4.4. Spectral Doppler: Flow of the Pulmonary and Left Atrial Veins
6.4.5. Colour Doppler Assessment
6.4.6. Tissue Doppler Measurement and Assessment

6.5. Advanced Echocardiography

6.5.1. Tissue Doppler-Derived Techniques
6.5.2. Transesophageal Echocardiogram
6.5.3. 3D Echocardiography

6.6. Hemodynamic Assessment I

6.6.1. Left Ventricular Systolic Function M-Mode Analysis Two-Dimensional Analysis Spectral Doppler Analysis Tissue Doppler Analysis

6.7. Hemodynamic Assessment II

6.7.1. Left Ventricular Diastolic Function Types of Diastolic Dysfunction

6.7.2. Left Ventricular Filling Pressures
6.7.3. Right Ventricular Function Radial Systolic Function Longitudinal Systolic Function Tissue Doppler

6.8. Hemodynamic Assessment III

6.8.1. Spectral Doppler Pressure Gradients Pressure Half Time Regurgitation Volume and Fraction Shunt Quota

6.8.2. M-Mode Aorta Mitral Septum Left Ventricular Free Wall

6.9. Hemodynamic Assessment IV

6.9.1. Color Doppler Jet Size PISA Contracted Vein

6.9.2. Assessment of Mitral Regurgitation
6.9.3. Assessment of Tricuspid Regurgitation
6.9.4. Assessment of Aortic Regurgitation
6.9.5. Assessment of Pulmonary Regurgitation

6.10. Thoracic Ultrasound Scan

6.10.1. Thoracic Ultrasound Scan Spills Masses Pulmonary Parenchyma

6.10.2. Echocardiography in Exotic Animals Rabbits Ferrets Rodents
6.10.3. Others

Module 7. Acquired Heart Diseases Chronic Mitral and Tricuspid Valve Disease Endocarditis Pericardial Alterations Cardiac Masses

7.1. Chronic Degenerative Valve Disease (I): Etiology

7.1.1. Valvular Anatomy
7.1.2. Etiology
7.1.3. Prevalence

7.2. Chronic Degenerative Valve Disease (II): Pathology

7.2.1. Pathophysiology
7.2.2. Staging and Classification

7.3. Chronic Degenerative Valve Disease (III): Diagnosis

7.3.1. History and Exploration
7.3.2. Radiology
7.3.3. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
7.3.4. Echocardiography
7.3.5. Biochemical Tests
7.3.6. Differential Diagnoses

7.4. Chronic Degenerative Valve Disease (III): Echocardiographic Assessment

7.4.1. Valvular Anatomy Appearance and Movement Degenerative Lesions Prolapses Ruptured Chordae Tendineae

7.4.2. Dimensions and Functionality of the Left Ventricle
7.4.3. Quantification of Regurgitation
7.4.4. Echocardiographic Staging Cardiac Remodeling Regurgitation Flows and Fraction Left Atrial Pressures Pulmonary Hypertension

7.5. Chronic Degenerative Valve Disease (IV): Progression and Decompensation Risk Analysis

7.5.1. Risk Factors for Progression
7.5.2. Decompense Prediction
7.5.3. Particularities in the Evolution of Tricuspid Pathology
7.5.4. Owner's Role
7.5.5. Periodicity of Revisions

7.6. Chronic Degenerative Valve Disease (V): Therapy

7.6.1. Medical Treatment
7.6.2. Surgical Management

7.7. Chronic Degenerative Valve Disease (VI): Complicating Factors

7.7.1. Arrhythmias
7.7.2. Pulmonary Hypertension
7.7.3. Systemic Arterial Hypertension
7.7.4. Renal Insufficiency
7.7.5. Atrial Rupture

7.8. Infectious Endocarditis

7.8.1. Aetiology and Pathophysiology of Bacterial Endocarditis
7.8.2. Diagnosis of Bacterial Endocarditis
7.8.3. Treatment of Bacterial Endocarditis

7.9. Pericardial Alterations

7.9.1. Pericardium Anatomy and Physiology
7.9.2. Pathophysiology of Pericardial Tamponade
7.9.3. Diagnosis of Pericardial Tamponade
7.9.4. Types of Pericardial Alterations Hernias and Defects Spills or Effusions (Types and Origins) Masses Constrictive Pericarditis

7.9.5. Pericardiocentesis and Action Protocol

7.10. Cardiac Masses

7.10.1. Aortic Base Tumors
7.10.2. Hemangiosarcoma
7.10.3. Mesothelioma
7.10.4. Intracavitary Tumors
7.10.5. Clots: Atrial Rupture

Module 8. Acquired Heart Disease. Cardiomyopathies

8.1. Primary Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

8.1.1. Definition of Primary Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) and Histological Features
8.1.2. Echocardiographic Diagnosis of DCM
8.1.3. Electrocardiographic Diagnosis of Occult DCM Electrocardiogram (ECG) Holter

8.1.4. RCM Therapy Hidden Phase Symptomatic Phase

8.2. Secondary Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

8.2.1. Etiological Diagnosis of Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM)
8.2.2. DCM Secondary to Nutritional Deficiencies
8.2.3. DCM Secondary to Other Causes Endocrine Disorders Toxins Others

8.3. Tachycardia-Induced Cardiomyopathy (TICM)

8.3.1. Electrocardiographic Diagnosis of TICM Electrocardiogram (ECG) Holter

8.3.2. TICM Therapy Pharmacotherapy Radiofrequency Ablation

8.4. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC)

8.4.1. Definition of ARVC and Histological Features
8.4.2. Echocardiographic Diagnosis of ARVC
8.4.3. Electrocardiographic Diagnosis of ARVC ECG Holter

8.4.4. ARVC Therapy

8.5. Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) (I)

8.5.1. Definition of HCM and Histological Features
8.5.2. Echocardiographic Diagnosis of HCM Phenotype
8.5.3. Electrocardiographic Findings at HCM

8.6. Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) (II)

8.6.1. Etiological Diagnosis of HCM
8.6.2. Hemodynamic Consequences of HCM
8.6.3. Staging of HCM
8.6.4. Prognostic Factors in HCM
8.6.5. HCM Therapy Asymptomatic Phase Symptomatic Phase

8.7. Other Feline Cardiomyopathies (I)

8.7.1. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy (RCM) Histological Characteristics of RCM Echocardiographic Diagnosis of RCM Phenotype Electrocardiographic Findings in RCM RCM Therapy

8.7.2. Feline Dilated Cardiomyopathy Histological Features of Feline Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) Echocardiographic Diagnosis of the DCM Phenotype Etiologic Diagnosis of Feline DCM

8.8. Other Feline Cardiomyopathies (II)

8.8.1. Feline Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DMC) (cont.) Therapy of Feline DCM

8.8.2. End-Stage Cardiomyopathies Echocardiographic Diagnosis Therapy of End-Stage Cardiomyopathy

8.8.3. Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy (HOCM)

8.9. Myocarditis

8.9.1. Clinical Diagnosis of Myocarditis
8.9.2. Etiologic Diagnosis of Myocarditis
8.9.3. Non-Etiologic Therapy of Myocarditis
8.9.4. Chagas Disease

8.10. Other Myocardial Alterations

8.10.1. Atrial Standstill
8.10.2. Fibroendoelastosis
8.10.3. Cardiomyopathy Associated with Muscular Dystrophy (Duchenne)
8.10.4. Cardiomyopathy in Exotic Animals

Module 9.  Congenital Heart Disease

9.1. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) (I)

9.1.1. Embryological Mechanisms that Give Rise to PDA
9.1.2. Anatomical Classification of PDA
9.1.3. Echocardiographic Diagnosis

9.2. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (II)

9.2.1. Pharmacotherapy
9.2.2. Interventional Therapy
9.2.3. Surgical Therapies

9.3. Pulmonary Stenosis (PS) (I)

9.3.1. Anatomical Classification of PS
9.3.2. Echocardiographic Diagnosis of PS
9.3.3. Pharmacotherapy

9.4. Pulmonary Stenosis (II)

9.4.1. Interventional Therapy
9.4.2. Surgical Therapies

9.5. Aortic Stenosis (AS) (I)

9.5.1. Anatomical Classification of AS
9.5.2. Echocardiographic Diagnosis of AS
9.5.3. Pharmacotherapy

9.6. Aortic Stenosis (II)

9.6.1. Interventional Therapy
9.6.2. Screening Program Results

9.7. Ventricular Septal Defects (VSD)

9.7.1. Anatomical Classification of VSD
9.7.2. Echocardiographic Diagnosis
9.7.3. Pharmacotherapy
9.7.4. Surgical Therapies
9.7.5. Interventional Therapy

9.8. Interatrial Septal Defects (ISD)

9.8.1. Anatomical Classification of ISD
9.8.2. Echocardiographic Diagnosis
9.8.3. Pharmacotherapy
9.8.4. Interventional Therapy

9.9. Atrioventricular Valve Dysplasia

9.9.1. Tricuspid Dysplasia
9.9.2. Mitral Dysplasia

9.10. Other Congenital Defects

9.10.1. Tetralogy of Fallot
9.10.2. Persistent Left Cranial Cava Vein
9.10.3. Double Chamber Right Ventricle
9.10.4. Aorto-Pulmonary Window
9.10.5. Persistent Right Fourth Aortic Arch
9.10.6. Cor Triatrium Dexter and Cor Triatrium Sinister
9.10.7. Common Atrioventricular Canal

Module 10. Pulmonary and Systemic Hypertension, Systemic Diseases with Cardiac Repercussions and Anesthesia in the Cardiac Patient

10.1. Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) (I)

10.1.1. Definition of PH
10.1.2. Echocardiographic Diagnosis of PH
10.1.3. HP Classification

10.2. Pulmonary Hypertension (II)

10.2.1. Additional Diagnostic Protocol in Animals Suspected of PH
10.2.2. PH Treatment

10.3. Systemic Hypertension (I)

10.3.1. Methods for Blood Pressure Measurement
10.3.2. Diagnosis of Hypertension
10.3.3. Pathophysiology of Systemic Hypertension
10.3.4. Assessment of Target Organ Damage
10.3.5. Hypertensive Cardiomyopathy

10.4. Systemic Hypertension (II)

10.4.1. Patient Selection for Hypertension Screening Programs
10.4.2. Treatment of Systemic Hypertension
10.4.3. Monitoring of Treatment and Additional Target Organ Damage

10.5. Filariasis

10.5.1. Etiological Agent
10.5.2. Diagnosis of Filarial Infection Physical Methods Serological Methods

10.5.3. Pathophysiology of Filarial Infestations Dogs Cats

10.5.4. Findings in Echocardiograms
10.5.5. Treatment of Filariasis Medical Treatment Interventional Treatment

10.6. Endocrine Diseases Affecting the Heart (I)

10.6.1. Hyperthyroidism
10.6.2. Hypothyroidism
10.6.3. Hyperadrenocorticism
10.6.4. Hypoadrenocorticism

10.7. Endocrine Diseases Affecting the Heart (II)

10.7.1. Diabetes
10.7.2. Acromegaly
10.7.3. Hyperaldosteronism
10.7.4. Hyperparathyroidism

10.8. Other Systemic Alterations Affecting the Cardiovascular System (I)

10.8.1. Pheochromocytoma
10.8.2. Anemia
10.8.3. Uremia
10.8.4. Toxics and Chemotherapeutics
10.8.5. Shock

10.9. Other Systemic Alterations Affecting the Cardiovascular System (II)

10.9.1. Gastric Dilatation/Torsion
10.9.2. Splenic Splenitis/Neoplasia
10.9.3. Hypercoagulable State and Thrombosis
10.9.4. Conditions Causing Hypo- or Hypercalcemia
10.9.5. Conditions Causing Hypo- or Hyperkalemia
10.9.6. Conditions Causing Hypo- or Hypermagnesemia

10.10. Anesthesia in Cardiac Patients

10.10.1. Pre-Surgery Evaluation
10.10.2. Hemodynamic and Surgical Factors Involved in the Choice of Hypnotics
10.10.3. Anesthetic Monitoring

Module 11. Cardiac Embryology, Anatomy and Physiology in Large Animals: Equidae, Ruminants and Swine

11.1. Embryology I. Cardiac Tube and Cardiac Loop Formation

11.1.1. Cardiac Tube Formation
11.1.2. Cardiac Loop Formation

11.2. Embryology II. Formation of Cardiac Septa and Major Blood Vessels, Fetal and Transitional Blood Circulation

11.2.1. Cardiac Septa Formation
11.2.2. Major Blood Vessel Formation

11.3. Embryology III. Fetal and Transitional Blood Circulation

11.3.1. Fetal and Transitional Blood Circulation

11.4. Cardiac Anatomy I. Key Aspects

11.4.1. General Data
11.4.2. Orientation in the Thoracic Cavity
11.4.3. Pericardium

11.5. Cardiac Anatomy II. Heart and Coronary Blood Vessels: Atria, Ventricles and Conduction System

11.5.1. Heart and Coronary Blood Vessels
11.5.2. Atria and Ventricles
11.5.3. Conduction System

11.6. Cardiac Physiology I. Cardiac Cycle, Cardiac Metabolism, Cardiac Muscle

11.6.1. Cardiac Cycle
11.6.2. Cardiac Metabolism
11.6.3. Ultrastructure of Cardiac Muscle

11.7. Cardiac Physiology II. Systolic Heart Function I

11.7.1. Preload
11.7.2. Afterload

11.8. Cardiac Physiology III. Systolic Heart Function II

11.8.1. Contractility
11.8.2. Hypertrophy
11.8.3. Wall Stress Curves

11.9. Cardiac Physiology IV. Flows and Neurohormonal Control of Circulation

11.9.1. Blood Flow
11.9.2. Coronary Flow
11.9.2. Neurohormone Control of Circulation

11.10. Cardiac Physiology V. Ion Channels and Action Potentials

11.10.1. Ion Channels
11.10.2. Action Potential

Module 12. Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Pharmacology in Large Animals: Equidae, Ruminants and Swine

12.1. Pathophysiology of Arrhythmias

12.1.1. Arrhythmogenic Mechanisms

12.2. Syncope Pathophysiology

12.2.1. Collapse and Syncope
12.2.2. Mechanisms Involved in Syncope
12.2.3. Types of Syncope According to the Mechanism Involved

12.3. Heart Failure Pathophysiology

12.3.4. Definition
12.3.5. Mechanisms Involved

12.4. Types of Heart Failure

12.4.1. Systolic and Diastolic
12.4.2. Left and Right
12.4.3. Acute and Chronic

12.5. Compensatory Mechanisms in Heart Failure

12.5.6. Sympathetic Response
12.5.7. Endocrine Response
12.5.8. Neurohumoral Response

12.6. Cardiovascular Pharmacology I. Diuretics and Vasodilators

12.6.1. Diuretics
12.6.2. Vasodilators

12.7. Cardiovascular Pharmacology II. Calcium Channel Blockers and Digitalis

12.7.1. Calcium Blockers
12.7.2. Digitalis

12.8. Cardiovascular Pharmacology III. Adrenergic and Dopaminergic Receptor Agonists

12.8.1. Adrenergic
12.8.2. Dopaminergic

12.9. Antiarrhythmics I

12.9.1. Class I
12.9.2. Class II

12.10. Antiarrhythmics II

12.10.1. Class III
12.10.2. Others

Module 13. General Examination of Large Animals with Cardiovascular Pathology: Equidae, Ruminants and Swine

13.1. Medical History, General and Specific Clinical Examination in Equidae

13.1.1. Anamnesis
13.1.2. General Physical Examination
13.1.3. Cardiovascular System Examination

13.2. Anamnesis, General and Specific Clinical Examination of Ruminants and Camelids

13.2.1. Ruminants Anamnesis General Physical Examination Cardiovascular System Examination

13.2.2. Camelids Anamnesis General Physical Examination Cardiovascular System Examination

13.3. General Auscultation of Heart Sounds

13.3.1. Interpretation of Normal Heart Sounds
13.3.2. General Characteristics of Heart Murmurs
13.3.3. Physiological Murmurs
13.3.4. Differential Diagnosis of Physiological Murmurs

13.4. Auscultation of Murmurs and Arrhythmias

13.4.1. Systolic Pathological Murmurs
13.4.2. Diastolic Pathological Murmurs
13.4.3. Continuous Murmurs
13.4.4. Irregular Rhythms

13.5. Blood Pressure Measurement

13.5.1. Role of Systemic Arterial Pressure
13.5.2. Reference Values
13.5.3. Alterations in Systemic Arterial Blood Pressure
13.5.4. Methods for Measuring Systemic Blood Pressure

13.6. Cardiac Output Measurement

13.6.1. Definition and Regulation of Cardiac Output
13.6.2. Monitoring
13.6.3. Indications for Monitoring

13.7. Interpretation of Blood Analysis I

13.7.1. Blood Count
13.7.2. Leukogram
13.7.3. Platelet Disorders
13.7.4. Biochemistry

13.8. Interpretation of Blood Analysis II

13.8.1. Electrolyte Disorders
13.8.2. Troponin, BNP and ANP

13.9. Clinical Approach to Animals with Heart Murmur or Arrhythmias

13.9.1. Interpretation of Clinical Signs and Assessment of Clinical Significance
13.9.2. Prognosis

13.10. Clinical Approach to Syncope

13.10.1. Interpretation of Clinical Signs and Assessment of Clinical Significance
13.10.2. Prognosis

Module 14. Complementary Non-Invasive Cardiovascular Tests in Large Animals: Equidae, Ruminants, Swine

14.1. General Echocardiography Concepts

14.1.1. Ultrasound Characteristics
14.1.2. Ultrasound-Tissue Interaction
14.1.3. Ultrasound Imaging Formation
14.1.4. Equipment Features

14.2. Basic Ultrasound Modes

14.2.1. M-Mode Ultrasound
14.2.2. Two-Dimensional Ultrasound
14.2.3. Doppler Technique
14.2.4. Speckle Tracking

14.3. Special Ultrasound Modes and Cardiac Formulas

14.3.1. Contrast Ultrasound
14.3.2. Stress Ultrasound
14.3.3. Transesophageal Ultrasound
14.3.4. Fetal Cardiac Ultrasound
14.3.5. Cardiac Formulas

14.4. Ultrasound Views

14.4.1. Right Hemithorax Views
14.4.2. Left. Hemithorax Views

14.5. Electrocardiogram Interpretation

14.5.1. Assessing Cardiac Function
14.5.2. Assessment of the Structure and Dimensions of the Chambers

14.6. What is an Electrocardiogram?

14.6.1. Anatomical and Electrophysiological Foundations
14.6.2. What Is It and How Does It Originate?

14.7. Recording Techniques

14.7.1. Einthoven's Classical System
14.7.2. Base-Apex Systems and Handheld Devices
14.7.3. Electrocardiogram Acquisition Modes

14.8. Electrocardiogram Interpretation

14.8.1. Normal Electrocardiogram
14.8.2. Determining Heart Rate
14.8.3. Interpreting Heart Rate
14.8.4. Electrocardiogram Waveform Interpretation

14.9. Electrocardiogram Abnormalities

14.9.1. Artefacts
14.9.2. Wave Morphological Abnormalities

14.10. How to Deal with an Electrocardiogram

14.10.1. Reading Protocol
14.10.2. Tricks

Module 15. Structural Cardiac Pathologies in Large Animals: Equidae, Ruminants and Swine

15.1. Congenital Cardiac Alterations I. Ventricular Septal Defect

15.1.1. Definition, Prevalence and Etiology
15.1.2. Pathophysiology
15.1.3. Diagnosis
15.1.4. Necessary Complementary Tests
15.1.5. Treatment
15.1.6. Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

15.2. Congenital Cardiac Disorders II. Tetralogy/Pentalogy of Fallot

15.2.1. Definition, Prevalence and Etiology
15.2.2. Pathophysiology
15.2.3. Diagnosis
15.2.4. Necessary Complementary Tests
15.2.5. Treatment
15.2.6. Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

15.3. Congenital Cardiac Disorders III. Patent Ductus Arteriosus

15.3.1. Definition, Prevalence and Etiology
15.3.2. Pathophysiology
15.3.3. Diagnosis
15.3.4. Necessary Complementary Tests
15.3.5. Treatment
15.3.6. Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

15.4. Congenital Cardiac Disorders IV. Rare Abnormalities

15.4.1. Patent Ductus Arteriosus
15.4.2. Atrial Septal Defect
15.4.3. Atrioventricular Valve Dysplasia
15.4.4. Pulmonary Stenosis

15.5. Acquired Cardiac Diseases I. Aortic Insufficiency

15.5.1. Definition, Prevalence and Etiology
15.5.2. Pathophysiology
15.5.3. Diagnosis
15.5.4. Necessary Complementary Tests
15.5.5. Treatment
15.5.6. Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

15.6. Acquired Cardiac Diseases II. Mitral insufficiency

15.6.1. Definition, Prevalence and Etiology
15.6.2. Pathophysiology
15.6.3. Diagnosis
15.6.4. Necessary Complementary Tests
15.6.5. Treatment
15.6.6. Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

15.7. Acquired Cardiac Diseases III. Tricuspid Regurgitation

15.7.1. Definition, Prevalence and Etiology
15.7.2. Pathophysiology
15.7.3. Diagnosis
15.7.4. Necessary Complementary Tests
15.7.5. Treatment
15.7.6. Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

15.8. Acquired Cardiac Diseases IV. Pulmonary Insufficiency and Pulmonary Hypertension

15.8.1. Definition, Prevalence and Etiology
15.8.2. Pathophysiology
15.8.3. Diagnosis
15.8.4. Necessary Complementary Tests
15.8.5. Treatment
15.8.6. Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

15.9. Acquired Cardiac Diseases V. Aorto-Cardiac and Aorto-Pulmonary Fistulas

15.9.1. Definition, Prevalence and Etiology
15.9.2. Pathophysiology
15.9.3. Diagnosis
15.9.4. Necessary Complementary Tests
15.9.5. Treatment
15.9.6. Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

15.10. Heart Failure

15.10.1. Definition, Prevalence and Etiology
15.10.2. Pathophysiology
15.10.3. Diagnosis
15.10.4. Treatment
15.10.5. Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

Module 16. Arrhythmias in Large Animals: Equidae, Ruminants and Swine

16.1.  Sinus Rhythm

16.1.1. Features
16.1.2. EKG Recognition

16.2. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, Bradycardia and Tachycardia Sinus Arrhythmias

16.2.1. Definition, Prevalence and Etiology
16.2.2. Pathophysiology
16.2.3. Diagnosis
16.2.4. Necessary Complementary Tests
16.2.5. Treatment
16.2.6. Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

16.3. Premature Supraventricular Complexes and Atrial Tachycardia

16.3.1. Definition, Prevalence and Etiology
16.3.2. Pathophysiology
16.3.3. Diagnosis
16.3.4. Necessary Complementary Tests
16.3.5. Treatment
16.3.6. Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

16.4. Atrial Fibrillation

16.4.1. Definition, Prevalence and Etiology
16.4.2. Pathophysiology
16.4.3. Diagnosis
16.4.4. Necessary Complementary Tests
16.4.5. Treatment
16.4.6. Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

16.5. Premature Ventricular Complexes and Ventricular Tachycardia

16.5.1. Definition, Prevalence and Etiology
16.5.2. Pathophysiology
16.5.3. Diagnosis
16.5.4. Necessary Complementary Tests
16.5.5. Treatment
16.5.6. Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

16.6. Non-Pathological Conduction Disorders

16.6.1. Sinus Block and Second-Degree Atrioventricular Block Definition, Prevalence and Etiology Pathophysiology Diagnosis Necessary Complementary Tests Treatment Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

16.7. Pathological Conduction Disorders

16.7.1. Advanced Second-Degree and Third-Degree Atrioventricular Block Definition, Prevalence and Etiology Pathophysiology Diagnosis Necessary Complementary Tests Treatment Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

16.7.2. Sick Sinus Syndrome Definition, Prevalence and Etiology Pathophysiology Diagnosis Necessary Complementary Tests Treatment Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

16.8. Supraventricular Beats and Escape Rhythms

16.8.1. Definition, Prevalence and Etiology
16.8.2. Pathophysiology
16.8.3. Diagnosis
16.8.4. Necessary Complementary Tests
16.8.5. Treatment
16.8.6. Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

16.9. Ventricular Beats and Escape Rhythms

16.9.1. Definition, Prevalence and Etiology
16.9.2. Pathophysiology
16.9.3. Diagnosis
16.9.4. Necessary Complementary Tests
16.9.5. Treatment
16.9.6. Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

16.10. Accelerated Idioventricular Rhythm and Ventricular Preexcitation Syndrome

16.10.1. Definition, Prevalence and Etiology
16.10.2. Pathophysiology
16.10.3. Diagnosis
16.10.4. Necessary Complementary Tests
16.10.5. Treatment
16.10.6. Clinical and Prognostic Relevance

Module 17. Pathologies of the Endocardium, Myocardium, Pericardium and Vascular System in Major Species: Equidae, Ruminants and Swine

17.1. Pericardial Disorders

17.1.1. Pathophysiology of Pericarditis
17.1.2. Physical Examination and Clinical Signs
17.1.3. Diagnostic Tests
17.1.4. Treatment Options and Prognosis

17.2. Myocardial Disorders

17.2.1. Pathophysiological Causes of Myocarditis
17.2.2. Clinical Signs
17.2.3. Treatment Options

17.3. Intoxications Affecting the Myocardium

17.3.1. Ionophore Poisoning
17.3.2. Poisoning by Ingestion of Toxic from Plants

17.4. Hypoglycine A Myopathy

17.4.1. Pathogenesis
17.4.2. Clinical Signs
17.4.3. Diagnosis
17.4.4. Treatment and Prognosis

17.5. Endocarditis

17.5.1. Pathophysiology
17.5.2. Diagnosis
17.5.3. Prognosis

17.6. Thrombophlebitis and Aortoiliac Thromboses

17.6.1. Thrombophlebitis
17.6.2. Aortoiliac Thrombosis

17.7. Vasculitis

17.7.1. Infectious and Non-Infectious Causes
17.7.2. Diagnosis
17.7.3. Treatment and Prognosis

17.8. Vascular Lesions Caused by Parasites and Vascular Neoplasms

17.8.1. Strongilus Vulgaris
17.8.2. Hemangiosarcoma and Hemangioma
17.8.3. Lymphangioma and Lymphangiosarcoma

17.9. Vascular Ruptures

17.9.1. Aortocardiac and Aortopulmonary Fistulas
17.9.2. Pulmonary Artery Rupture
17.9.3. Congenital Problems Causing Vascular Lesions and Other Causes of Rupture

17.10. Cardiomyopathies

17.10.1. Pathophysiology
17.10.2. Diagnosis
17.10.3. Prognosis

Module 18. Cardiac Response to Exercise, Sports Performance and Sudden Death in Sports Horses

18.1. The Cardiovascular System

18.1.1. Anatomical Review
18.1.2. Blood
18.1.3. Cardiovascular Function During Exercise
18.1.4. Cardiovascular Response to Exercise

18.2. Energy Production During Exercise

18.2.1. ATP
18.2.2. Metabolic Routes
18.2.3. Anaerobic Threshold
18.2.4. Interrelation of the Different Energy Systems
18.2.5. Oxygen Consumption

18.3. Practical Aspects of Physical Preparation

18.3.1. Basic Principles
18.3.2. Cardiovascular Fitness
18.3.3. Cardiovascular Overtraining
18.3.4. Cardiovascular Detraining

18.4. Discipline-Specific Cardiovascular Fitness Training

18.4.1. Dressage
18.4.2. Jump
18.4.3. Full Competition
18.4.4.  Raid
18.4.5. Racing
18.4.6. Polo

18.5. Cardiovascular Fitness Assessment Test

18.5.1. Test Under Controlled Conditions
18.5.2. Field Test

18.6. Complementary Tests to Assess Clinical Relevance Cardiac Pathologies During Exercise

18.6.1. Exercise Electrocardiography
18.6.2. Post-Exercise Echocardiography

18.7. Laboratory Analysis for Cardiac Pathology Evaluation

18.7.1. Respiratory System Samples
18.7.2. CK
18.7.3. Troponins
18.7.4. BNP
18.7.5. ANP

18.8. Cardiac Pathologies Affecting Sports Performance

18.8.1. Arrhythmias
18.8.2. Structural Pathologies

18.9. Sudden Death

18.9.1. Definition and Prevalence
18.9.2. Clinical Assessment of Sudden Death Risk

18.10. Cardiac Pathologies Related to Sudden Death

18.10.1. Arrhythmias
18.10.2. Structural Pathologies

Module 19. Systemic Disorders and Specific Situations Affecting the Heart in Large Animals: Equidae, Ruminants and Swine

19.1. Potassium-Associated Electrolyte Abnormalities

19.1.1. Pathophysiology of Potassium
19.1.2. Effect of Potassium Disorders on the Heart
19.1.3. Treatment

19.2. Calcium-Associated Electrolyte Disorders

19.2.1. Pathophysiology of Calcium
19.2.2. Effect of Potassium Disorders on the Heart
19.2.3. Treatment

19.3. Magnesium-Associated Electrolyte Disorders

19.3.1. Pathophysiology of Magnesium
19.3.2. Effect of Potassium Disorders on the Heart
19.3.3. Treatment

19.4. Metabolic Syndrome

19.4.1. Etiology and Prevalence
19.4.2. Pathophysiology
19.4.3. Effects on the Heart
19.4.4. Treatment

19.5. Cushing's Syndrome and Pheochromocytoma

19.5.1. Etiology and Prevalence
19.5.2. Pathophysiology
19.5.3. Effects on the Heart
19.5.4. Treatment

19.6. Renal Insufficiency

19.6.1. Etiology and Prevalence
19.6.2. Pathophysiology
19.6.3. Effects on the Heart
19.6.4. Treatment

19.7. Intoxications

19.7.1. By Natural Products
19.7.2. By Artificial Products

19.8. Parasitic Infections

19.8.1. Etiology and Prevalence
19.8.2. Pathophysiology
19.8.3. Effects on the Heart
19.8.4. Treatment

19.9. Shock

19.9.1. Endotoxic Shock
19.9.2. Hypovolemic Shock

19.10. Anesthetic Drugs

19.10.1. Sedatives
19.10.2. Hypnotics

Module 20. Advanced Cardiac Procedures: Interventionism, Minimally Invasive Surgery and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Large Animals: Equidae, Ruminants and Swine

20.1. Anesthesia in Cardiac Interventions and Minimally Invasive Surgery

20.1.1. Monitoring
20.1.2. General Anesthesia in Non-Critically Ill Patients
20.1.3. General Anesthesia in Critically Ill Patients
20.1.4. Anesthesia for On-Station Procedures

20.2. Endomyocardial Biopsy

20.2.1. Instruments
20.2.2. Technique
20.2.3. Indications for Use
20.2.4. Associated Complications

20.3. Pacemaker Implantation

20.3.1. Instruments
20.3.2. Technique
20.3.3. Indications for Use
20.3.4. Associated Complications

20.4. Septal Occlusion with Amplatzer Devices for Interventricular Communication

20.4.1. Instruments
20.4.2. Technique
20.4.3. Indications for Use
20.4.4. Associated Complications

20.5. Septal Occlusion of Aorto-Cardiac Fistulas with Amplatzer Devices

20.5.1. Instruments
20.5.2. Technique
20.5.3. Indications for Use
20.5.4. Associated Complications

20.6. Endovenous Electrical Cardioversion

20.6.1. Instruments
20.6.1. Technique
20.6.2. Indications for Use
20.6.3. Associated Complications

20.7. Electrophysiological Mapping

20.7.1. Instruments
20.7.2. Technique
20.7.3. Indications for Use
20.7.4. Associated Complications

20.8. Ablation of Supraventricular Arrhythmias

20.8.1. Instruments
20.8.2. Technique
20.8.3. Indications for Use
20.8.4. Associated Complications

20.9. Pericardiectomy by Thoracoscopy

20.9.1. Instruments
20.9.2. Technique
20.9.3. Indications for Use
20.9.4. Associated Complications

20.10. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

20.10.1. In Foals
20.10.2. In Adults

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