Equine veterinarians are currently in demand by the owners of these animals. So don't think twice and increase your skills to improve their treatment"

In the last 20 years, veterinary anesthesia in major species has experienced great progress thanks to the introduction of new techniques and drugs, as well as the development of specific anesthetic monitors and machines.

Additionally, the introduction of new surgical techniques has created the need to develop new anesthetic protocols, and there is a growing concern about the impact of anesthesia and analgesia on animal welfare and on the final outcome of surgical procedures.

The equine veterinary clinic also requires constant updating on the part of the veterinarian, as it encompasses numerous and complex specialties in continuous development. It is a highly competitive professional sector that quickly incorporates new scientific advances into the outpatient clinic, so the veterinarian deals with a labor market that demands a very high level of competence in all aspects.

The mobile veterinarians' daily work is very demanding in terms of the number of working hours, both because of the volume of hours involved in the mobile visits and because of the degree of personal dedication and the time required for the administrative management of their own company. For this reason, they often lack the free time they need to continue their training in person at accredited centers, and in many instances resort to consulting procedures and other information on the Internet. In the network, the professional expects to find reliable online training.

Taking into account the need for competent and quality online training, we present this Advanced Master’s Degree in Equine Anesthesia and Surgery, which has revolutionized the world of veterinary specialization, both for its contents, as well as for its teaching staff and its innovative teaching methodology.

Furthermore, as it is a 100% online specialization, the student decides where and when to study. Without the restrictions of fixed timetables or having to attend classes, which facilitates the conciliation of family and professional life.

A high level scientific program, supported by advanced technological development and the teaching experience of the best professionals”

This Advanced Master’s Degree in Equine Anesthesia and Surgery contains the most complete and up to date academic program on the market. The most important features include:

  • The latest technology in online teaching software
  • A highly visual teaching system, supported by graphic and schematic contents that are easy to assimilate and understand
  • Practical cases presented by practising experts
  • State-of-the-art interactive video systems
  • Teaching supported by telepractice
  • Continuous updating and recycling systems
  • Autonomous learning: full compatibility with other occupations
  • Practical exercises for self assessment and learning verification
  • Support groups and educational synergies: questions to the expert, debate and knowledge forums
  • Communication with the teacher and individual reflection work
  • Content that is accessible from any fixed or portable device with an internet connection
  • Supplementary documentation databases are permanently available, even after the course

A program created for professionals who aspire to excellence that will allow you to acquire new skills and strategies in a smooth and effective way" 

Our teaching staff is made up of working professionals. In this way, we ensure that we provide the up to date training we are aiming for. A multidisciplinary team of professionals trained and experienced in different environments, who will develop the theoretical knowledge efficiently, but, above all, will put at the service of the training the practical knowledge derived from their own experience.

This mastery of the subject is complemented by the effectiveness of the methodological design of this Advanced Master’s Degree. Developed by a multidisciplinary team of e-learning experts, it integrates the latest advances in educational technology. In this way, you will be able to study with a range of comfortable and versatile multimedia tools that will give you the operability you need in this training.

The design of this program is based on Problem-Based Learning, an approach that sees learning as a highly practical process. To achieve this remotely, we will use telepractice. With the help of an innovative interactive video system and Learning from an Expert, you will be able to acquire the knowledge as if you were facing the scenario you are currently learning. A concept that will make it possible to integrate and fix learning in a realistic and permanent way.

We give you the opportunity to take a deep and complete dive into the strategies and approaches in Equine Anesthesia and Surgery"

magister anestesia y cirugía equina

Our innovative telepractice concept will give you the opportunity to learn through an immersive experience, which will provide you with a faster integration and a much more realistic view of the contents: Learning from an Expert”


The contents of this Advanced Master’s Degree have been developed by the different experts of this course, with a clear purpose: to ensure that our students acquire each and every one of the necessary skills to become true experts in this field.

Throughout the syllabus, the professional will cover the two areas of interest of this Advanced Master’s Degree; anesthesiology and large animal surgery. Both areas will be developed independently, but in a coordinated manner, covering all possible paradigms of intervention in which the professional may find themselves.

Through a very well organized program, you will be able to access the most advanced knowledge of the moment in Equine Anesthesia and Surgery"   

Module 1. Physiology Applied to Anesthesia in Major Species

1.1. Physiology Applied to Anesthesia

1.1.1. Introduction
1.1.2. History of Anesthesia in Major Species

1.2. Cardiovascular System Physiology in the Horse

1.2.1. Cardiac Anatomy
1.2.2. Cardiac Electrophysiology
1.2.3. Cardiac Mechanical Function
1.2.4. Vascular System

1.3. Respiratory System Physiology in the Horse I

1.3.1. Anatomy of the Respiratory System
1.3.2. Pulmonary Ventilation

1.4. Respiratory System Physiology in the Horse II

1.4.1. Pulmonary Circulation
1.4.2. Gas Exchange
1.4.3. Breathing Control

1.5. Digestive System in the Horse

1.5.1. Anatomy of the Digestive System
1.5.2. Nervous and Hormonal Control of the Digestive Function

1.6. Renal System in the Horse

1.6.1. Anatomy of the Renal System
1.6.2. Formation of the Urine
1.6.3. Effects of Anesthetics on the Renal Function

1.7. Nervous System in the Horse

1.7.1. Anatomy of the Central Nervous System
1.7.2. Anatomy of the Peripheral Nervous System 
1.7.3. Neuronal Function
1.7.4. Assessment of Neurological Function During Anesthesia

1.8. Autonomic Nervous System and Anesthesia-Related Stress

1.8.1. Autonomic Nervous System
1.8.2. Stress Response Associated with Anesthesia

1.9. Anatomy and Physiology of Small and Large Ruminants

1.9.1. Applied Anatomy of Large Ruminants
1.9.2. Applied Physiology of Large Ruminants
1.9.3. Applied Anatomy of Small Ruminants
1.9.4. Applied Physiology of Small Ruminants

1.10. Anatomy and Physiology of Swine and Camelids

1.10.1. Applied Anatomy of Swine
1.10.2. Applied Physiology of Swine
1.10.3. Applied Anatomy of Camelids
1.10.4. Applied Physiology of Camelids

Module 2. Assessment, Preanesthetic Preparation and Sedation in Major Species

2.1. Physical Examination and Blood Test
2.2. Anesthetic Risk and Preanesthetic Preparation in the Equine Patient
2.3. Pharmacology of Injectable Drugs in Horses

2.3.1. Important Pharmacokinetic Concepts
2.3.2. Important Pharmacodynamics Concepts
2.3.3. Physiological and Pathological Factors that Modify Pharmacological Properties
2.3.4. Pharmacological Interactions
2.3.5. Routes of Administration

2.4. Phenothiazines

2.4.1. Mechanism of Action
2.4.2. Pharmacology
2.4.3. Clinical Use and Antagonism
2.4.4. Complications and Adverse Effects

2.5. Benzodiazepines

2.5.1. Mechanism of Action
2.5.2. Pharmacology
2.5.3. Clinical Use and Antagonism
2.5.4. Complications and Adverse Effects

2.6. Adrenergic Alpha-2 Receptor Agonists

2.6.1. Mechanism of Action
2.6.2. Pharmacology
2.6.3. Clinical Use and Antagonism
2.6.4. Complications and Adverse Effects

2.7. Opioids

2.7.1. Mechanism of Action
2.7.2. Pharmacology
2.7.3. Clinical Use and Antagonism
2.7.4. Complications and Adverse Effects

2.8. Sedation for On-Station Procedures

2.8.1. Types of Procedures
2.8.2. Clinical Objectives
2.8.3. Methods of Administration
2.8.4. Combinations Described

2.9. Assessment and Anesthetic Preparation in Ruminants, Swine and Camelids
2.10. Pharmacological Peculiarities of Ruminant, Swine and Camelid Patients

2.10.1. Small Ruminants
2.10.2. Large Ruminants
2.10.3. Swine
2.10.4. Camelids

Module 3. Induction of General Anesthesia in Major Species

3.1. Dissociative Anesthetics (Ketamine)

3.1.1. Pharmacology
3.1.2. Side Effects:
3.1.3. Contraindications
3.1.4. Dosages and Protocols

3.2. Barbiturates (Thiopental)

3.2.1. Pharmacology
3.2.2. Side Effects:
3.2.3. Contraindications
3.2.4. Dosages and Protocols

3.3. Propofol, Alfaxalone, Etomidate

3.3.1. Pharmacology
3.3.2. Side Effects:
3.3.3. Contraindications
3.3.4. Dosages and Protocols

3.4. Benzodiazepines and Guaifenesin

3.4.1. Pharmacology
3.4.2. Side Effects:
3.4.3. Contraindications
3.4.4. Dosages and Protocols

3.5. Main Knock-Down Techniques in the Equine Patient
3.6. Endotracheal Intubation, Nasotracheal Intubation and Tracheostomy in the Equine Patient
3.7. Physiological Consequences of Different Decubitus, Padding and Limb Positioning in the Equine Patient
3.8. Peculiarities of the Induction Period in Large and Small Ruminants

3.8.1. Pharmacology of Induction Agents
3.8.2. Knock-Down Techniques
3.8.3. Intubation Techniques

3.9. Peculiarities of the Induction Period in Swine and Camelids

3.9.1. Pharmacology of Induction Agents
3.9.2. Knock-Down Techniques
3.9.3. Intubation Techniques

3.10. Positioning of the Ruminant, Swine and Camelid Patient After Induction

Module 4. General Anesthesia and Equipment in Major Species

4.1. Anesthetic Equipment (I)

4.1.1. Anesthetic Machine
4.1.2. Circular Circuit

4.2. Anesthetic Equipment (II)

4.2.1. Mechanical Ventilator
4.2.2. Demand Valve

4.3. General Aspects of Inhalation Anesthesia

4.3.1. Pharmacokinetics of Inhalation Agents (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination, Physical and Chemical Characteristics)
4.3.2. Pharmacodynamics of Inhalation Agents (CNS Effects, Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects, Other Effects)
4.3.3. Halogenated Inhalation Agents Isoflurane Sevoflurane

4.4. Partial and Total Intravenous Anesthesia (PIVA and TIVA)

4.4.1. Injectable Agents Used and Techniques

4.5. Neuromuscular Blocking Agents

4.5.1. Mechanism of Action
4.5.2. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
4.5.3. Monitoring
4.5.4. Pharmacology of Reversing Agents

4.6. General Anesthesia in Other Species (Small and Large Ruminants, Swine and Camelids)
4.7. Mechanical Ventilation

4.7.1. Respiratory Mechanism
4.7.2. Consequences of MV
4.7.3. Ventilatory Parameters

4.8. Mechanical Ventilation in Other Species (Small and Large Ruminants, Swine and Camelids)
4.9. Anesthetic Recovery

4.9.1. Recovery Techniques
4.9.2. Patient Preparation
4.9.3. Box Preparation

4.10. Anesthetic Recovery (Small and Large Ruminants, Swine and Camelids)

Module 5. Monitoring in Major Species

5.1. The Anesthetic Record
5.2. Anesthetic Depth Monitoring
5.3. Cardiovascular and Hemodynamic Status Monitoring (I)

5.3.1. Clinical Monitoring
5.3.2. Electrocardiogram

5.4. Cardiovascular and Hemodynamic Status Monitoring (II)

5.4.1. Indirect Arterial Pressure Oscillometry Doppler

5.4.2. Direct Arterial Pressure

5.5. Monitoring of Oxygenation Status (I)

5.5.1. Clinical Monitoring
5.5.2. Arterial Blood Gas (PaO2)

5.6. Monitoring of Oxygenation Status (II)

5.6.1. Pulse Oximetry

5.7. Monitoring of Ventilation Status (I)

5.7.1. Clinical Monitoring
5.7.2. Arterial Blood Gas (PaCO2)

5.8. Monitoring of Ventilation Status (II)

5.8.1. Capnography

5.9. Other Monitoring Types

5.9.1. Temperature
5.9.2. Glucose
5.9.3. Lactate
5.9.4. Ions
5.9.5. Neurostimulation
5.9.6. Others

5.10. Monitoring in Other Species (Small and Large Ruminants, Swine and Camelids)

5.10.1. Particularities of Monitoring in Small Ruminants
5.10.2. Particularities of Monitoring in Large Ruminants
5.10.3. Particularities of Swine Monitoring
5.10.4. Particularities of Camelids Monitoring

Module 6. Analgesia in Major Species

6.1. Definition of Pain and Pathophysiology of Pain

6.1.1. Definition of Pain
6.1.2. Types of Pain
6.1.3. Pathophysiology of Pain Nociceptors Axons Neurotransmitters Nociception Pathway

6.2. Multimodal and Preventive Analgesia

6.2.1. Clinical Analgesia
6.2.2. Multimodal Analgesia
6.2.3. Preventive Analgesia

6.3. Consequences of Untreated Pain
6.4. Pain Detection Systems

6.4.1. Physiological Signs
6.4.2. Equine Pain Scales
6.4.3. Pain Scales in Other Species

6.5. Opioids

6.5.1. Pharmacology
6.5.2. Side Effects:
6.5.3. Contraindications
6.5.4. Clinical Use

6.6. NSAIDs

6.6.1. Pharmacology
6.6.2. Side Effects:
6.6.3. Contraindications
6.6.4. Clinical Use

6.7. α2 Agonists Agents

6.7.1. Pharmacology
6.7.2. Side Effects:
6.7.3. Contraindications
6.7.4. Clinical Use

6.8. Ketamine and Lidocaine

6.8.1. Ketamine Pharmacology Side Effects: Contraindications Clinical Use

6.8.2. Lidocaine Pharmacology Side Effects: Contraindications Clinical Use

6.9. Other: Gabapentin, Amantadine, Amitriptyline, Tramadol, Paracetamol

6.9.1. Gabapentin Pharmacology Side Effects: Contraindications Clinical Use

6.9.2. Amantadine Pharmacology Side Effects: Contraindications Clinical Use

6.9.3. Amitriptyline Pharmacology Side Effects: Contraindications Clinical Use

6.9.4. Tramadol Pharmacology Side Effects: Contraindications Clinical Use

6.9.5. Paracetamol Pharmacology Side Effects: Contraindications Clinical Use

6.10. Pharmacology of Analgesics in Other Species (Small and Large Ruminants, Swine and Camelids)

6.10.1. Pharmacological Peculiarities of Analgesics in Small Ruminants
6.10.2. Pharmacological Peculiarities of Analgesics in Large Ruminants
6.10.3. Pharmacological Peculiarities of Analgesics in Swine
6.10.4. Pharmacological Peculiarities of Analgesics in Camelids

Module 7. Locoregional Anesthesia in Major Species

7.1. Pharmacology of Local Anesthetics

7.1.1. Mechanism of Action
7.1.2. Clinical Differences
7.1.3. Complications
7.1.4. Adjuvants

7.2. Instruments and Equipment

7.2.1. Needles
7.2.2. Neurostimulation
7.2.3. Ultrasound

7.3. Locoregional Head Blocks (I)

7.3.1. Maxillary Nerve Block
7.3.2. Infraorbital Nerve Block
7.3.3. Mandibular Nerve Block
7.3.4. Mental Nerve Block

7.4. Locoregional Head Blocks (II)

7.4.1. Retrobulbar/Peribulbar Block
7.4.2. Eyelid Block
7.4.3. Auriculopalpebral Block
7.4.4. Ear Block
7.4.5. Cervical Block

7.5. Locoregional Forelimb Block

7.5.1. Surgical Blocks

7.6. Locoregional Hind Limb Blocks

7.6.1. Surgical Blocks

7.7. Locoregional Laparotomy Blocks

7.7.1. Lumbar Paravertebral Block
7.7.2. Inverted "L" Block and Infiltration
7.7.3. Transverse Abdominal Plane Block

7.8. Epidural Anesthesia

7.8.1. Realization of a Single Technique
7.8.2. Epidural Catheter Placement
7.8.3. Drugs Used

7.9. Locoregional Large Ruminant Anesthesia

7.9.1. Most Common Techniques

7.10. Locoregional Small Ruminants, Swine and Camelids Anesthesia

7.10.1. Most Common Techniques

Module 8. Anesthetic Complications and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

8.1. Morbidity and Mortality

8.1.1. Mortality General Considerations Mortality Studies Comparative Mortality Risk factors Related to the Horse Related to the Surgical Procedure Related to Anesthesia Anesthesia-Related Causes of Death Cardiovascular Respiratory Others

8.1.2. Morbidity

8.2. Complications in Premedication and Induction I

8.2.1. Intra-Arterial and Perivascular Injection
8.2.2. Anaphylactic Reactions
8.2.3. Drug-Induced Priapism
8.2.4. Incomplete or Inadequate Sedation/Induction

8.3. Complications in Premedication and Induction II

8.3.1. Hypoventilation
8.3.2. Inability to Intubate/Laryngeal Trauma
8.3.3. Hypotension

8.4. Complications in Maintenance I

8.4.1. Hypoxemia
8.4.2. Hypercapnia
8.4.3. Inadequate Anesthetic Plane and Alternating Planes
8.4.4. Malignant Hyperthermia

8.5. Complications in Maintenance II

8.5.1. Hypotension
8.5.2. Hypertension
8.5.3. Bleeding
8.5.4. Alterations in Heart Rate and Rhythm

8.6. Complications in Recovery I

8.6.1. Hypoxemia/Hypercapnia
8.6.2. Nasal Edema
8.6.3. Airway Obstruction
8.6.4. Pulmonary Edema
8.6.5. Fractures and Soft Tissue Damage
8.6.6. Neuropathologies
8.6.7. Myopathies

8.7. Complications in Recovery II

8.7.1. Myelopathies
8.7.2. Hyperkaliaemic Periodic Paralysis
8.7.3. Delay/Excitation in Recovery
8.7.4. Immediate Postoperative Complications
8.7.5. Human Error

8.8. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) I

8.8.1. Causes of Cardiopulmonary Emergencies
8.8.2. Diagnosis of Cardiopulmonary Emergencies
8.8.3. Cardiac Massage
8.8.4. CPR Maneuver Foal CPR Maneuver Adult CPR Maneuver

8.9. Complications in Small and Large Ruminants

8.9.1. Complications Associated with Poor Patient Positioning
8.9.2. Cardiovascular Complications
8.9.3. Tympanism, Regurgitation, Salivation
8.9.4. Respiratory Complications
8.9.5. Hypothermia
8.9.6. Other Complications

8.10. Complications in Ruminants, Swine and Camelids

8.10.1. Complications Related to Improper Positioning of Ruminants, Swine and Camelids
8.10.2. Cardiovascular Complications in Ruminants, Swine and Camelids
8.10.3. Respiratory Complications in Ruminants, Swine and Camelids
8.10.4. Digestive Complications in Ruminants and Camelids Complications in Anesthetic Recovery in Ruminants, Swine and Camelids Complications Related to Intravenous Catheterization in Ruminants, Swine and Camelids Complications Related to Endotracheal Intubation in Swine Malignant Hyperthermia in Swine Patients

Module 9. Fluid Therapy in Major Species

9.1. Physiology of Water and Body Electrolytes:

9.1.1. Physiological Body Spaces
9.1.2. Fluid Equilibrium
9.1.3. Sodium Physiology and Alterations
9.1.4. Potassium Physiology and Alterations
9.1.5. Calcium Physiology and Alterations
9.1.6. Chlorine Physiology and Alterations
9.1.7. Magnesium Physiology and Alterations

9.2. Acid-Base Equilibrium I

9.2.1. Regulation of Acid-Base Homeostasis
9.2.2. Consequences of Acid-Base Disorders
9.2.3. Interpretation of Acid-Base Status Traditional Method New Approaches

9.3. Acid-Base Equilibrium II

9.3.1. Metabolic Acidosis
9.3.2. Respiratory Acidosis
9.3.3. Metabolic Alkalosis
9.3.4. Respiratory Alkalosis
9.3.5. Mixed Disorders

9.4. Catheterization in the Equine Patient

9.4.1. Selection of Catheter
9.4.2. Catheterization Placement Points
9.4.3. Catheter Placement and Maintenance

9.5. Catheterization Complications

9.5.1. Thrombophlebitis
9.5.2. Catheter Rupture
9.5.3. Perivascular Injection
9.5.4. Venous Air Embolism
9.5.5. Exsanguination

9.6. Clinical Examination of Water Status in the Equine Patient

9.6.1. Physical Examination
9.6.2. Laboratorial Parameters
9.6.3. Hemodynamic Parameters

9.7. Types of Fluids I

9.7.1. Replacement Fluids
9.7.2. Maintenance Fluids

9.8. Types of Fluids II

9.8.1. Colloids

9.9. Transfusion of Blood Products

9.9.1. Plasma
9.9.2. Erythrocyte Concentrate
9.9.3. Whole Blood
9.9.4. Complications

9.10. Fluid Therapy in Ruminants, Swine and Camelids

9.10.1. Physiology Applied to Fluid Therapy in these Species
9.10.2. Isotonic, Hypertonic and Hypotonic Solutions Available in These Species
9.10.3. Colloid Solutions Available in These Species
9.10.4. Fluid Therapy for the Perioperative Period in These Species
9.10.5. Imbalances of Glycemia and Ions and their Correction Through Fluid Therapy in These Species

Module 10. Special Cases and Clinical Situations in Major Species

10.1. Special Cases in Station in Equines

10.1.1. Diagnostic Procedures (CT, MRI)
10.1.2. Laryngeal Surgery
10.1.3. Laparoscopy
10.1.4. Dental Procedures
10.1.5. Ophthalmological Procedures
10.1.6. Perineal Surgeries
10.1.7. Obstetric Maneuvers

10.2. Anesthesia in Special Cases in Equines (I)

10.2.1. Geriatric Patient
10.2.2. Patient with Acute Abdominal Syndrome
10.2.3. Cesarean Section

10.3. Anesthesia in Special Cases in Equines (II)

10.3.1. Elective Anesthetic Management in Foals
10.3.2. Emergency Anesthetic Management of Foal Emergencies

10.4. Anesthesia in Special Cases in Equines (III)

10.4.1. Anesthetic Management of Respiratory Surgery
10.4.2. Anesthetic Management of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures for Nervous System Pathologies

10.5. Anesthesia in Special Cases in Ruminants

10.5.1. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management in Orthopedic Procedures in Ruminants
10.5.2. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management in Wounds, Bruises and Abscesses in Ruminants
10.5.3. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management in Ruminant Laparotomy
10.5.4. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management in Obstetrics and Castration Procedures in Ruminants
10.5.5. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management in Distal Limb, Hoof and Horn Procedures in Ruminants
10.5.6. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management in Udder and Teat Procedures in Ruminants
10.5.7. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management on Eyes and Adjacent Areas in Ruminants
10.5.8. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management in Surgical Procedures for the Resolution of Umbilical Hernias in Ruminants
10.5.9. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management in Perianal and Tail Procedures in Ruminants

10.6. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Donkeys and Mules

10.6.1. Anatomical, Physiological and Behavioral Variations
10.6.2. Reference Values Required for Anesthesia
10.6.3. Variations in Responses to Common Drugs Used in Anesthesia
10.6.4. Premedication and Sedation for Foot Procedures in Donkeys and Mules
10.6.5. Induction and Maintenance of Anesthesia: Injectable and Inhalation Techniques
10.6.6. Anesthetic Monitoring
10.6.7. Recovery of Anesthesia
10.6.8. Preoperative, Intraoperative and Postoperative Analgesia
10.6.9. Local Anesthetic Techniques in Donkeys and Mules

10.7. Anesthesia in Special Cases in Swine and Camelids

10.7.1. Intraoperative and Perioperative Anesthetic Management in Field Anesthesia in Swine
10.7.2. Castration in Piglets. Analgesic and Anesthetic Considerations
10.7.3. The Vietnamese Pig. Intraoperative and Perioperative Anesthetic Management and Most Frequent Complications
10.7.4. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management of the Pig as a Model for Transplantation and Cardiovascular Models
10.7.5. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management of the Pig as a Model for Laparoscopy
10.7.6. Intraoperative and Perioperative Anesthetic Management in Field Anesthesia in Camelids
10.7.7. Castration in Alpaca. Analgesic and Anesthetic Considerations

10.8. Anesthesia in Ruminants, Swine and Wild Camelids

10.8.1. Considerations for Chemical Immobilization and Anesthesia in the Family Bovidae and Antilocapridae
10.8.2. Considerations for Chemical Immobilization and Anesthesia in the Subfamily Capridae
10.8.3. Considerations for Chemical Immobilization and Anesthesia in the Family Cervidae, Tragulidae and Mochidae
10.8.4. Considerations for Chemical Immobilization and Anesthesia in the Family Suidae and Tayassuidae
10.8.5. Considerations for Chemical Immobilization and Anesthesia in the Family Camelidae

10.9. Special Considerations: Animals for Consumption/Experimental Animals (Ruminants and Swine)

10.9.1. Legislation Applicable to the Anesthesia of Animals Intended for Human Consumption
10.9.2. Anesthetic and Analgesic Considerations in Animals Intended for Human Consumption
10.9.3. Legislation Applicable to the Anesthesia of Animals for Experimental Purposes
10.9.4. Anesthetic and Analgesic Considerations in Experimental Ruminants and Swine

10.10. Euthanasia

10.10.1. General Considerations Geriatric Horse

10.10.2. Mechanisms of Action for Hypothermia.
10.10.3. Chemical Euthanasia Methods
10.10.4. Physical Euthanasia Methods
10.10.5. Euthanasia Protocol
10.10.6. Confirmation of Death

Module 11. Digestive System

11.1. Approach to Acute Abdominal Syndrome Evaluation. Treatment Decision

11.1.1. Introduction Epidemiology of Colic and Predisposing Factors  Categorization of Diseases Causing Colicky Conditions

11.1.2. General Screening Methods Medical History Assessment of General Condition and Degree of Pain Measurement of Vital Signs, Degree of Dehydration, Degree of Tissue Perfusion and Mucous Membranes Status Auscultation, Palpation and Percussion of the Abdomen Rectal Examination Nasogastric Catheterization

11.1.3. Advanced Diagnostic Methods Blood Biopathology in the Diagnosis of Colic Abdominocentesis Ultrasound, Radiology, Endoscopy

11.1.4. Treatment Decision: Medical or Surgical? When to Refer?

11.2. Diagnostic Imaging of the Digestive System in the Field

11.2.1. Introduction to Diagnostic Imaging in the Field
11.2.2. Technical Basis Radiology Ultrasound

11.2.3. Oral Pathology
11.2.4. Esophageal Pathology
11.2.5. Abdominal Pathology Digestive System Stomach. Small Intestine Large Intestine Peritoneal Cavity

11.3. Oral cavity Examination Exodontia

11.3.1. Exploration of the Head
11.3.2. Oral cavity Examination
11.3.3. Regional Nerve Blocks for Surgery and Dental Extractions Maxillary Nerve Mandibular Nerve Infraorbital Nerve Mental Nerve

11.3.4. Exodontia: Indications and Techniques

11.4. Malocclusions. Tumors. Maxillary and Mandibular Fractures Temporomandibular Joint Pathology

11.4.1. Malocclusions. Filing Wear Alterations

11.4.2. Tumors. Classification
11.4.3. Maxillary and Mandibular Fractures Reparation
11.4.4. Temporomandibular Joint Pathology Alterations and Clinical Signs Examination and Diagnosis Treatment and Prognosis

11.5. Diseases of the Esophagus and Stomach

11.5.1. Oesophageal Esophageal Obstruction Oesophagitis Other Esophageal Alterations

11.5.2. Stomach. Gastric Ulcers Gastric Impaction Squamous Cell Carcinoma Other Stomach Alterations

11.6. Small Intestine Diseases

11.6.1. Simple Obstruction
11.6.2. Proximal Enteritis
11.6.3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease
11.6.4. Intestinal Lymphoma
11.6.5. Strangulating Alterations
11.6.6. Small Intestinal Alterations

11.7. Large Intestinal Diseases

11.7.1. Impactions Large Colon Cecum Minor Colon

11.7.2. Large Colon Displacement
11.7.3. Colitis
11.7.4. Peritonitis
11.7.5. Enterolithiasis
11.7.6. Other Large Intestinal Alterations

11.8. Liver and Biliary Tract Diseases

11.8.1. Approach to the Patient with Liver Disease
11.8.2. Acute Liver Failure
11.8.3. Cholangiohepatitis
11.8.4. Chronic Hepatitis
11.8.5. Neoplasms
11.8.6. Other Liver and Biliary Tract Alterations

11.9. Infectious and Parasitic Diseases of the Digestive Tract

11.9.1. Infectious Diseases of the Digestive Tract Salmonellosis Proliferative Enteropathy Clostridiosis Rotavirus Potomac Equine Fever Equine Coronavirus

11.9.2. Parasitic Diseases of the Digestive Tract Gastrointestinal Myiasis Intestinal Protozoa Intestinal Cestodes Intestinal Nematodes

11.10. Treatment of Medical Colic in the Field

11.10.1. Management of the Patient with Colicky Pain
11.10.2. Pain Control in Colicky Patients
11.10.3. Fluid Therapy and Cardiovascular Support
11.10.4. Treatment for Endotoxemia

Module 12. Cardio-Respiratory and Vascular System

12.1. Clinical Assessment of the Respiratory System and Diagnostic Methods

12.1.1. Examination of the Respiratory System
12.1.2. Respiratory Tract Sampling: Samples from Nasal Cavity, Pharynx and Guttural Pouches Tracheal Aspirate and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Thoracentesis

12.1.3. Endoscopy Static and Dynamic Endoscopy of Upper Airways Sinuscopy

12.1.4. Radiology Nasal Cavity, Sinuses and Guttural Pouches Larynx and Trachea

12.1.5. Ultrasound. Ultrasound Techniques Pleural Effusion Atelectasis, Consolidation and Masses Pneumothorax

12.2. Diseases of the Upper Respiratory Tract I (Nose, Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses).

12.2.1. Diseases and Pathologies Affecting the Rostral/Larynxes Area Clinical Introduction and Diagnosis Atheroma - Epidermal Inclusion Cyst Treatment Redundant Wing Fold Treatment

12.2.2. Diseases and Pathologies Affecting the Nasal Cavity Diagnostic Techniques Nasal Septum Pathologies Ethmoidal Hematoma

12.2.3. Diseases and Pathologies Affecting the Paranasal Sinuses Clinical Presentation and Diagnostic Techniques Sinusitis Primary Sinusitis Secondary Sinusitis Paranasal Sinus Cyst Paranasal Sinus Neoplasia

12.2.4. Approaches to the Paranasal Sinus Trepanation Anatomical References and Technique Synocentesis Sinuscopy Flaps or Bone Flaps of the Paranasal Sinuses Associated Complications

12.3. Diseases of the Upper Tract II (Larynx and Pharynx)

12.3.1. Diseases and Pathologies affecting the Pharynx - Nasopharynx Anatomical Pathologies Nasopharyngeal Scar Tissue Nasopharyngeal Masses Treatment Functional Pathologies Dorsal Displacement of the Soft Palate (DDSP) Intermittent DDSP Permanent DDSP Surgical and Non-Surgical Treatments Rostral Pharyngeal Collapse Dorsal/Lateral Nasopharyngeal Collapse Nasopharyngeal Pathologies in Foals Choanal Atresia Cleft Palate Nasopharyngeal Dysfunction

12.3.2. Diseases and Pathologies Affecting the Larynx Recurrent Laryngeal Neuropathy (Laryngeal Hemiplegia) Diagnosis Gradation Treatment and Associated Complications Vocal Cord Collapse Bilateral Laryngeal Paralysis Cricopharyngeal-Laryngeal Dysplasia (Fourth Branchial Arch Defects) Collapse of the Apex of the Corniculate Process Medial Deviation of the Aryepiglottic Folds Chondropathy of the Arytenoid Cartilage Pathologies in the Mucosa of the Arytenoid Cartilages Pathologies Affecting the Epiglottis Epiglottic Entrapment Acute Epiglottitis Subepiglottic Cyst Subepiglottic Granuloma Dorsal Epiglottic Abscess Hypoplasia, Flaccidity, Deformity of Epiglottis Epiglottic Retroversion

12.4. Diseases of Guttural Pouches and Trachea Tracheostomy

12.4.1. Diseases and Pathologies Affecting the Guttural Pouches Tympanism Functional Nasopharyngeal Obstruction in Adults Empyema Mycosis Trauma - Ruptured Ventral Rectus Muscles Osteoarthropathy of the Temporohyoid Joint Other Pathologies

12.4.2. Diseases and Pathologies Affecting the Trachea Trauma Tracheal Collapse. Tracheal Stenosis. Foreign Bodies. Intraluminal Masses

12.4.3. Tracheal Surgeries Tracheostomy and Tracheostomy (Temporary) Permanent Tracheostomy Other Tracheal Surgeries

12.5. Inflammatory Diseases of the Lower Respiratory Tract

12.5.1. Introduction: Functionality of the Lower Respiratory Tract
12.5.2. Equine Asthma Etiology and Classification Epidemiology Classification Pathophysiology Clinical Signs Diagnostic Techniques Therapy Options Prognosis Prevention

12.5.3. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage Etiology Epidemiology Pathophysiology Clinical Signs Diagnostic Techniques Therapy Options Prognosis

12.6. Bacterial and Fungal Infectious Diseases of the Respiratory Tract

12.6.1. Equine Strangles. Streptococcus Equi Infection
12.6.2. Bacterial Pneumonia and Pleuropneumonia
12.6.3. Fungal Pneumonia

12.7. Pneumonias of Mixed Origin Viral Infectious Diseases of the Respiratory Tract and Tumors

12.7.1. Interstitial Pneumonia and Pulmonary Fibrosis
12.7.2. Equine Herpesvirus I, IV and V
12.7.3. Equine Influenza
12.7.4. Tumours of the Respiratory System

12.8. Exploration of the Cardiovascular System, Electrocardiography and Echocardiography

12.8.1. Anamnesis and Clinical Examination
12.8.2. Basic Principles of Electrocardiography
12.8.3. Electrocardiography Types
12.8.4. Electrocardiogram Interpretation
12.8.5. Basic Principles of Echocardiography
12.8.6. Echocardiographic Planes

12.9. Structural Cardiac Alterations

12.9.1. Congenital Ventricular Septal Defect

12.9.2. Acquired Aortic Insufficiency Mitral Insufficiency Tricuspid Regurgitation Aorto-Cardiac Fistula

12.10. Arrhythmias

12.10.1. Supraventricular Arrhythmias
12.10.2. Ventricular Arrhythmias
12.10.3. Conduction Disturbances

Module 13. Hematopoietic System, Immunology and Nutrition

13.1. Analytical Interpretation: Blood Count and Serum Biochemistry

13.1.1. General Considerations for the Interpretation of Analytical Reports Essential Patient Data Sample Collection and Handling

13.1.2. Interpretation of Blood Count Red Blood Cells White Blood Cells Platelet Cells Smears

13.1.3. Interpretation of Serum or Plasma Biochemistry Electrolytes Bilirubin Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Urea and Symmetrical Dimethylarginine (SDMA) Proteins: Albumin and Globulins Acute-Phase Proteins: Fibrinogen, Serum Amyloid A Enzymes Glucose Bicarbonate Lactate Triglycerides and Bile Acids

13.2. Hematopoietic System Pathologies

13.2.1. Hemolytic Anemia Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia Equine Infectious Anemia Piroplasmosis Other Causes

13.2.2. Hemorrhagic Anemia Hemoperitoneum and Hemothorax Gastrointestinal Losses Losses From Other Origin

13.2.3. Non-Regenerative Anemias Iron Deficiency Anemia Anemia due to Chronic Inflammation/Infection Aplastic Anemia

13.2.4. Coagulation Alterations Platelet disorders: Thrombocytopenia Platelet Functional Alterations Alterations of Secondary Hemostasis Hereditary Acquired Thrombocytosis Lymphoproliferative disorders. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

13.3. Endotoxic Shock

13.3.1. Systemic Inflammation and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)
13.3.2. Causes of Endotoxemia in Horses
13.3.3. Pathophysiological Mechanisms
13.3.4. Endotoxic Shock Hemodynamic Changes Multiorgan Dysfunction

13.3.5. Clinical Signs of Endotoxemia and Endotoxic Shock.
13.3.6. Diagnosis
13.3.7. Management Endotoxin Release Inhibitors Endotoxin Uptake and Inhibition Cell Activation Inhibition Inhibition of the Synthesis of Inflammatory Mediators Other specific therapies Support Treatments

13.4. Treatment of Hematopoietic Alterations Transfusion Therapy

13.4.1. Indications for Transfusion of Whole Blood
13.4.2. Indications for Plasma Transfusion
13.4.3. Indications for Transfusion of Platelet Products
13.4.4. Donor Selection and Compatibility Testing
13.4.5. Technique for Whole Blood Collection and Processing of Plasma
13.4.6. Administration of Blood Products Volume of Administration Administration Techniques Adverse Reaction Monitoring

13.5. Immune System Alterations Allergies.

13.5.1. Hypersensitivity Types
13.5.2. Pathologies Associated with Hypersensitivity Anaphylactic Reaction Hemorrhagic Purpura

13.5.3. Autoimmunity
13.5.4. Most Important Immunodeficiencies in Equines Diagnostic Tests Primary Immunodeficiencies Secondary Immunodeficiencies

13.5.5. Immunomodulators: Immunostimulants Immunosuppressants

13.6. Nutrition Basic Principles I

13.6.1. Physiology of Gastrointestinal Tract Oral cavity, Esophagus, Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine

13.6.2. Diet Components, Nutrients Water Proteins and Amino Acids Carbohydrates Fats and Fatty Acids Minerals and Vitamins

13.6.3. Estimation of Horse Weight and Body Condition

13.7. Nutrition Basic Principles II

13.7.1. Energy and Available Energy Sources Forage Starches Fats

13.7.2. Metabolic Pathways of Energy Production
13.7.3. Energy Needs of the Horse In Maintenance For Breeding and Growth For the Showhorse/Racehorse

13.8. Cachectic Horse Nutrition

13.8.1. Metabolic Response
13.8.2. Physical Examination and Clinical Signs
13.8.3. Blood Analysis
13.8.4. Differential Diagnoses
13.8.5. Nutritional Requirements

13.9. Use of Probiotics, Prebiotics and Medicinal Plants

13.9.1. Role of the Microbiota in the Large Intestine
13.9.2. Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Symbiotics
13.9.3. Medicinal Plants Use

13.10. Rational Use of Antibiotics. Bacterial Resistance

13.10.1. Responsible Antibiotic Use
13.10.2. New Antibiotic Therapies
13.10.3. Resistance Mechanisms
13.10.4. Main Multi-resistant Pathogens

Module 14. Locomotor System

14.1. Examination and Diagnosis of Lameness

14.1.1. Introduction Definition of Lameness Causes and Types of Lameness Symptoms of Lameness

14.1.2. Static Examination of Lameness Medical History Approach to the Horse and General Examination Visual Examination: General Condition and Conformation Static Physical Examination, Palpation, Percussion and Flexion

14.1.3. Dynamic Examination of Lameness Examination in Motion Flexion Test Assessment and Quantification of Lameness. Objective and Subjective Methods Introduction to Nerve Anesthetic Blocks

14.1.4. Introduction to Complementary Diagnostic Methods

14.2. Anesthetic Nerve Blocks

14.2.1. Diagnostic Loco-Regional Analgesia: Introduction General Considerations and Pre-Diagnostic Requirements Types of Blockages and Injection Techniques Drugs to be Used Election of Blockages Approach to the Patient Patient Management and Preparation Chemical Containment Evaluation of Results Subjective Assessment Objective Assessment Complications

14.2.2. Perineural Anesthetic Blocks Perineural Analgesia in the Forelimb Perineural Analgesia in the Hindlimb

14.2.3. Regional Anesthetic Blocks
14.2.4. Intrasynovial Anesthetic Blocks Intra-Articular Blocks Bursa and Tendon Sheath Blocks

14.3. Diagnostic Imaging of Lameness

14.3.1. Introduction to Diagnostic Imaging in the Field
14.3.2. Technical Basis Radiology Ultrasound Advanced Techniques Gammagraphy Magnetic Resonance Computerized Tomography

14.3.3. Bone Pathology Diagnosis
14.3.4. Joint Pathology Diagnosis
14.3.5. Diagnosis of Tendon and Ligament Pathology

14.4. Pathologies of the Axial Skeleton Diagnosis and Treatment

14.4.1. Introduction to Axial Skeletal Pathology
14.4.2. Axial Skeleton Exploration
14.4.3. Cervical Spine Diagnosis
14.4.4. Diagnosis of the Thoracolumbar and Sacroiliac Spine
14.4.5. Axial Skeleton Pathology Treatment

14.5. Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD) Traumatic Arthritis and Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment

14.5.1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Joints
14.5.2. Definition of EDA
14.5.3. Cartilage Lubrication and Repair
14.5.4. DJD Manifestations Acute Injuries Chronic Fatigue Injuries

14.5.5. DJD Diagnosis Clinical Examination Objective and Subjective Examination of Lameness Diagnostic Anesthesia Diagnostic Imaging Radiology Ultrasound Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Axial Tomography New Technologies

14.5.6. Treatment of DJD Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatories Steroid Anti-Inflammatories Hyaluronic Acid Glucosaminoglycans Pentosan Biological Therapies Autologous Conditioned Serum Platelet-rich Plasma Stem Cells Oral Supplements

14.6. Tendinitis, Desmitis and Adjacent Structures Pathologies

14.6.1. Applied Anatomy and Tendon Damage Pathophysiology
14.6.2. Alterations of Tendons, Ligaments and Associated Structures Soft Tissues of the Pastern Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon (SDFT) Deep Digital Flexor Tendon (DDFT) Inferior Accessory Ligament of the TFDSP Suspensory Ligament of the Fetlock (SL) Proximal part of the SL SL Body SL Branches Carpal Canal and Sheath Tarsal Sheath Plantar Fasciitis Bursitis

14.6.3. Management of Tendon and Ligament Injuries Medical Therapy Regenerative Therapies Stem Cell and Bone Marrow Therapies Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy Shock Waves and Other Physical Therapies Surgical Therapies Rehabilitation and Return to Work Guidelines

14.7. Fractures. Bone Sequestration

14.7.1. First Approach to Fractures, General Considerations Bone Sequestration Introduction First Aid for Fractures in Horses Case Selection, General Considerations Immobilization of Fractures According to Location Transport Transporting an Equine Patient for Fracture Treatment Prognosis Bone Sequestration

14.7.2. Rehabilitation and Return to Work Guidelines In Fractures In Bone Sequestration

14.8. Laminitis

14.8.1. Pathophysiology of Laminitis
14.8.2. Clinical of Laminitis
14.8.3. Diagnosis of Laminitis Physical Examination Diagnostic Imaging Endocrine and Metabolic Assessment

14.8.4. Medical Treatment of Laminitis Anti-Inflammatories Vasoactive Drugs Analgesia: Hypothermia Sepsis. Pars Intermedia Pituitary Dysfunction (PPID) and Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS)

14.8.5. Stabilization of the Third Phalanx Sole Support Techniques Therapeutic Horseshoeing

14.8.6. Treatment of Laminitis Use of Casts Fexor Digitorum Superficialis Tenotomy Dorsal Wall Resection Complications

14.8.7. Chronic Laminitis
14.8.8. Laminitis Prevention

14.9. Orthopedic Field Surgery

14.9.1. Fractures of Rudimentary Metacarpals/Metatarsals Clinical History, Symptomatology, Different Presentations Diagnostic Techniques Decision Making, Optimal Treatment Surgical Management Complications to Surgery Post-Operative Care Rehabilitation and Return to Work Guidelines

14.9.2. Desmotomies Medical History Decision Making Surgical Management Complications to Desmotomies Post-Operative Care Rehabilitation and Return to Work Guidelines

14.9.3. Neurectomies Indications Pre-Surgical Considerations and Implications Surgical Technique Complications Post-Operative Care Rehabilitation and Return to Work Guidelines

14.10. Myopathies in the Horse

14.10.1. Genetic and Congenital Diseases Myotonia Myopathy due to Polysaccharide Storage Malignant Hyperthermia Hyperkaliaemic Periodic Paralysis

14.10.2. Traumatic and Irritative Alterations Fibrotic Myopathy Bruises and Tears Intramuscular Irritant Injections

14.10.3. Infectious Diseases Abscesses Clostridial Myositis

14.10.4. Ischemic Diseases Post-Anesthetic Myositis

14.10.5. Nutritional Diseases Malnutrition Vitamin E and Selenium Alterations Cachectic Atrophy

14.10.6. Pathologies Associated with Exercise Acute Exertional Rhabdomyolysis Recurrent Exertional Rhabdomyolysis Hypokinetic Atrophy

Module 15. Surgical Pathologies of the Skin and Related Structures

15.1. Exploration and Wound Types

15.1.1. Anatomy
15.1.2. Initial Assessment, Emergency Treatment
15.1.3. Wound Classification
15.1.4. Wound Healing Process
15.1.5. Factors Influencing Wound Infection and Wound Healing
15.1.6. Primary and Secondary Intention Wound Healing

15.2. Tissue Management, Hemostasis and Suture Techniques

15.2.1. Incision and Tissue Dissection
15.2.2. Hemostasis Mechanical Hemostasis Ligatures Tourniquet Electrocoagulation Chemical Hemostasis

15.2.3. Tissue Management, Irrigation and Suctioning
15.2.4. Suture Materials Used Instruments Suture Material Selection Needles Drainages

15.2.5. Approaches to Wound Suturing
15.2.6. Suture Patterns

15.3. Bandages

15.3.1. Materials and Bandage Types
15.3.2. Hoof Bandage
15.3.3. Distal Extremity Bandage
15.3.4. Full Limb Bandage
15.3.5. Fiberglass Cast. Application and Peculiarities in Young Animals

15.4. Acute Wound Repair

15.4.1. Wound Treatment Medication
15.4.2. Debriding
15.4.3. Emphysema Secondary to Wounds
15.4.4. Negative Pressure Therapy
15.4.5. Topical Treatment Types

15.5. Repair and Management of Chronic and/or Infected Wounds

15.5.1. Particularities of Chronic and Infected Wounds
15.5.2. Causes of Chronic Wounds
15.5.3. Management of Severely Contaminated Wounds
15.5.4. Laser Benefits
15.5.5. Larvotherapy
15.5.6. Cutaneous Fistulas Treatment

15.6. Hoof Wound Treatment Regional and Intraosseous Perfusion of Antibiotics

15.6.1. Hoof Wounds Coronary Buckle Wounds Heel Wounds Puncture Wounds on the Palm

15.6.2. Antibiotic Perfusion Regional Perfusion Intraosseous Perfusion

15.7. Management and Repair of Synovial Wounds and Joint Lavage

15.7.1. Pathophysiology of Synovial Infection
15.7.2. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Synovial Wound Infections
15.7.3. Synovial Wound Treatment Joint Lavage
15.7.4. Synovial Wound Prognosis

15.8. Tendon Lacerations Management and Repair

15.8.1. Introduction, Anatomy, Anatomical Implications
15.8.2. Primary care, Examination of the Injury, Immobilization
15.8.3. Case Selection: Surgical or Conservative Treatment
15.8.4. Tendon Lacerations Surgical Repair
15.8.5. Rehabilitation and Return to Work Guidelines after Tenorrhaphy

15.9. Reconstructive Surgery and Skin Grafting

15.9.1. Principles of Basic and Reconstructive Surgery Skin Tension Lines Incision Orientation, Suture Patterns Tension Release Techniques and Plasties

15.9.2. Closure of Skin Defects of Different Shapes
15.9.3. Skin Grafts

15.10. Treatment of Exuberant Granulation Tissue Sarcoid Burns

15.10.1. Causes of the Appearance of Exuberant Granulation Tissue
15.10.2. Treatment of Exuberant Granulation Tissue
15.10.3. Sarcoid Appearance in Wounds Wound Associated Sarcoid Type

Module 16. Medical Pathologies of the Skin Endocrine System

16.1. Clinical Approach and Diagnostic Tests in Equine Dermatology

16.1.1. Medical History
16.1.2. Sampling and Main Diagnostic Methods
16.1.3. Other Specific Diagnostic Techniques

16.2. Bacterial and Viral Skin Diseases

16.2.1. Bacterial Diseases
16.2.2. Viral Diseases

16.3. Fungal and Parasitic Skin Diseases

16.3.1. Fungal Diseases
16.3.2. Parasitic Diseases

16.4. Allergic, Immune-Mediated and Irritative Skin Diseases

16.4.1. Hypersensitivity: Types
16.4.2. Insect Sting Allergy
16.4.3. Vasculitis and other Immune-Mediated Reactions
16.4.4. Other Skin Tumors

16.5. Congenital Diseases and Syndromes in Equine Dermatology

16.5.1. Hereditary Equine Regional Dermal Asthenia (HERDA), Epidermolysis Bullosa, and Other Congenital Diseases
16.5.2. Miscellaneous

16.6. Cutaneous Neoplasms

16.6.1. Sarcoids
16.6.2. Melanocytic Tumors
16.6.3. Squamous Cell Carcinomas
16.6.4. Mastocytomas
16.6.5. Lymphomas

16.7. Alternatives in the Medical Treatment of Neoplasms

16.7.1. Electroporation and Electrochemotherapy
16.7.2. Immunotherapy
16.7.3. Radiotherapy
16.7.4. Dynamic Phototherapy
16.7.5. Cryotherapy
16.7.6. Other Therapies

16.8. Endocrine System I

16.8.1. Dysfunction of the Intermediate Portion of the Pituitary Gland
16.8.2. Equine Metabolic Syndrome
16.8.3. Endocrine Pancreas
16.8.4. Adrenal Insufficiency

16.9. Endocrine System II

16.9.1. Thyroid Gland
16.9.2. Calcium Disorders
16.9.3. Magnesium Disorders
16.9.4. Phosphorus Disorders

16.10. Nutritional Management of the Obese Horse

16.10.1. Body Condition Assessment
16.10.2. Weight Reduction and Caloric Restriction
16.10.3. Pharmacological Intervention
16.10.4. Exercise
16.10.5. Maintenance

Module 17. Nervous System and Ophthalmology

17.1. Neuroanatomical Localization of Neurological Injuries in the Horse

17.1.1. Neuroanatomical Peculiarities of the Horse
17.1.2. Medical History
17.1.3. Neurological Examination Protocol Head Assessment. Behavior, Consciousness, Positioning and Cranial Nerves Posture and Motor Function Assessment Gradation of Alterations Neck and Thoracic Limb Evaluation Evaluation of the Trunk and Pelvic Limb Evaluation of Tail and Anus

17.1.4. Complementary Methods of Diagnostic

17.2. Disorders Affecting the Cerebral Cortex and Brainstem

17.2.1. Consciousness State Regulation
17.2.2. Cranial Trauma Etiopathogenesis Symptoms and Syndromes Diagnosis Treatment Prognosis

17.2.3. Metabolic Encephalopathy Hepatic Encephalopathy

17.2.4. Seizures and Epilepsy Types of Seizure Disorders Types of Epilepsy (ILAE Classification) (International League Against Epilepsy) Treatment

17.2.5. Narcolepsy

17.3. Cerebellar or Vestibular Alterations

17.3.1. Coordination and Balance
17.3.2. Cerebellar Syndrome Cerebellar Abiotrophy

17.3.3. Vestibular Syndrome Peripheral Vestibular Syndrome Central Vestibular Syndrome Head Trauma and Vestibular Syndrome Osteoarthropathy Temporoiohidea

17.4. Spinal Alterations

17.4.1. Cervical Stenotic Myelopathy Etiopathogenesis Symptomatology and Neurological Examination Diagnosis Radiology Myelography Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Axial Tomography, Gammagraphy Treatment

17.4.2. Equine Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy (EDM)
17.4.3. Spinal Trauma

17.5. Bacterial, Fungal and Parasitic Infections of the Nervous System

17.5.1. Bacterial Encephalitis or Encephalomyelitis Etiological Agents Symptomatology Diagnosis Treatment

17.5.2. Fungal Encephalitis
17.5.3. Equine Protozoal Encephalomyelitis (EPM) Etiopathogenesis Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment

17.5.4. Meningoencefalomielitis Verminosa Etiopathogenesis Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment

17.6. Viral Infections of the Nervous System

17.6.1. Equine Encephalomyelitis due to Herpesvirus Type -1 (EHV-1) Etiopathogenesis Clinical Picture Diagnosis Treatment

17.6.2. West Nile Virus Encephalomyelitis Etiopathogenesis Clinical Picture Diagnosis Treatment

17.6.3. Rabies Etiopathogenesis Clinical Picture Diagnosis Treatment

17.6.4. Borna, Hendra and other Viral Encephalitis Viruses

17.7. Ocular Examination Ocular Nerve Blocks and Sub-palpebral Catheter Placement

17.7.1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Eyeball
17.7.2. Optic Nerve Blocks
17.7.3. Ophthalmologic examination
17.7.4. Basic Diagnostic Tests
17.7.5. Advanced Diagnostic Tests
17.7.6. Sub-Palpebral Catheter Placement

17.8. Palpebral Pathologies Ocular Perforations Entropion Correction

17.8.1. Anatomy of Adnexal Tissues
17.8.2. Eyelid Alterations
17.8.3. Entropion Correction
17.8.4. Ocular Perforations

17.9. Corneal Ulcers

17.9.1. General Aspects and Classification of Corneal Ulcers
17.9.2. Simple, Complex and Severe Ulcers
17.9.3. Indolent Ulcer
17.9.4. Infectious Keratitis
17.9.5. Corneal Surgery

17.10. Uveitis and Ocular Medical Pathologies

17.10.1. Immune-Mediated Keratitis
17.10.2. Stromal Abscess
17.10.3. Equine Recurrent Uveitis
17.10.4. Crystalline Lens Alterations
17.10.5. Posterior Segment Alterations and Glaucoma
17.10.6. Neoplasms

Module 18. Reproductive and Urinary System

18.1. Urinary System Assessment

18.1.1. Hematological and Biochemical Parameters Related to the Renal System
18.1.2. Urinalysis
18.1.3. Diagnostic Methods in the Urinary System Ultrasound of the Urinary System. Endoscopy of the Urinary System Renal Biopsy. Water Deprivation Test

18.2. Urinary System Pathologies

18.2.1. Acute Renal Failure Causes of Acute Renal Insufficiency Treatment of Acute Renal Insufficiency

18.2.2. Chronic Renal Failure Causes of Chronic Renal Insufficiency Treatment of Chronic Renal Insufficiency

18.2.3. Urinary Tract Infections Urethritis, Cystitis and Pyelonephritis and their Treatment Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections

18.2.4. Obstructive Pathology of the Urinary Tract Obstructive Pathology Types Treatment

18.2.5. Polyuria and Polydipsia
18.2.6. Urinary Incontinence and Bladder Dysfunction
18.2.7. Urinary Tract Tumors

18.3. Medical Pathologies of the Male Genitalia

18.3.1. Introduction to the Medical Pathology of the Stallion
18.3.2. Testicular Pathology in the Stallion Handling and Treatment of the Cryptorchid Stallion Testicular Inflammatory Disorders Management of Testicular Degeneration in the Stallion Hydrocele Management Testicular Neoplasms in the Stallion Testicular Torsion in the Stallion

18.3.3. Penile Pathologies Penile Trauma Management Penile Tumor Developments Paraphimosis Priaprism

18.3.4. Pathology of Adnexal Glands Ultrasound and Assessment of Appendages Glands Vesiculitis, Management and Treatment Obstruction of Adnexal Glands

18.3.5. Ejaculate Alterations Seminal Assessment Factors Affecting Fertility Sub-fertile Semen Management Semen Centrifugation for Quality Improvement Seminal Plasma Substitution Semen Filtration to Improve Quality Low-Quality Semen Cooling Protocols

18.3.6. Alterations in Stallion Behavior and Mating Management
18.3.7. Advances in Assisted Reproduction in Stallions Seminal Freezing Epididymal Sperm Retrieval after Death or Castration

18.4. Male Field Surgical Procedures

18.4.1. Castration Introduction and Considerations of Castration in Males Patient Selection Castration Surgical Techniques Open Castration Closed Castration Semi-Closed or Semi-Open Castration Variations in Surgical Technique Different Hemostasis Options Primary Skin Closure On-Station Castration Considerations Sedation Considerations for Castration under General Anesthetic Inguinal Cryptorchidism Presurgical Diagnosis Surgical Technique

18.4.2. Penile Amputation Indications Procedure and Post-surgical Considerations

18.5. Medical and Surgical Pathologies of the Female Genitalia I

18.5.1. Medical Pathologies I Ovarian Pathology Ovulation Disorders Ovarian Tumors Fallopian Tubes Disorders Medical Uterine Pathology Preparation and Procedure for Sample Collection Cytology Biopsy Types of Endometritis Management of the Mare with Uterine Fluid Management of Mares with Uterine Cysts

18.6. Medical and Surgical Genital Pathologies of the Mare II

18.6.1. Medical Pathologies II Cervix Pathology Cervical Lacerations Cervical Adherences Medical Pathology of the Vagina Reproductive Management of the Geriatric Mare Update on Assisted Reproduction in the Mare

18.6.2. Surgical Pathologies of the Mare Normal Vulvar Conformation of the Mare Vulvar Examination of the Mare Caslick Index Vulvoplasty Caslick Surgery Procedure

18.7. Pregnant Mare and Care at Foaling

18.7.1. Mare Gestation Diagnosis of Pregnancy in the Mare Management of Early and Late Multiple Gestation New Techniques Embryo Sexing

18.7.2. Complications During Gestation in the Mare Abortion Early Abortion Late Abortion Uterine Torsion Management and Treatment of Placentitis Management of Placental Abruption

18.7.3. Nutritional Needs of the Pregnant Mare
18.7.4. Ultrasound Evaluation of the Fetus Ultrasound Evaluation at Different Stages of Gestation Fetal Biometry

18.7.5. Methods for Predicting Foaling in the Full-Term Mare
18.7.6. Euthyroid Labor and Delivery Phases of Euthyroid Labor and Delivery

18.8. Complications of Labor and Delivery and Postpartum Care

18.8.1. Dystocic Labor and Delivery Material Necessary for the Resolution of Dystocia Types of Dystocia and Management of Different Fetal Presentations

18.8.2. Peripartum Surgical Emergencies Fetotomy The Fetus Preparation of the Mare for the Procedure Fetotomy in the Field vs in the Hospital Cesarean Section Hemorrhage of the Ankle Ligament Uterine Laceration Prepubic Tendon Rupture Rectovaginal Fistula

18.8.3. Postpartum Care Control of Uterine Involution and Establishment of the Postpartum Cycle

18.8.4. Complications in Postpartum Placenta Retention Vaginal Lacerations Uterine Bleeding Uterine Prolapse Rectal Prolapse Vulvar Hematoma Uterine Horn Invagination

18.9. Repair of Tears and Lacerations during Labor and Delivery

18.9.1. Management of Vulvar Tears and Lacerations during Labor and Delivery
18.9.2. Classification of Perineal Lacerations
18.9.3. Reconstruction of the Perineal Body Surgical Preparation of the Mare Vaginal Vestibule Sphincter Insufficiency Perineal Body Reconstruction, Vestibuloplasty Perineal Body Transverse Section, Perineoplasty Pouret’s Surgery Post-Operative Care Complications of Perineal Surgery

18.9.4. Surgical Management of Third-Degree Rectovaginal Tearing
18.9.5. Surgical Management of Rectovaginal Fistulas

18.10. Infectious and Parasitic Diseases of the Reproductive System in Equines

18.10.1. Introduction to Infectious and Parasitic Diseases of the Reproductive System in Equines
18.10.2. Economic and Productive Significance of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases
18.10.3. Infectious Diseases of the Reproductive Tract Mycoplasmas Contagious Equine Metritis Procedure of Sample Collection for the Determination of Contagious Equine Metritis Equine Viral Arteritis Equine Rhinopneumonitis Leptospirosis. Brucellosis

18.10.4. Parasitic Diseases of the Reproductive Tract Habronemiasis Durina

Module 19. Foal Medicine and Surgery

19.1. Neonatal Screening

19.1.1. Normal Clinical Parameters in the Foal during the First Days of Life
19.1.2. Onset of Organ Systems Functioning at Birth and During the First Months of Life Gastric System Respiratory System Endocrine System Muscular and Neurological System Ophthalmic System

19.2. Immature Foal Failure in the Passive Transfer of Immunity Isoerythrolysis Septicemia

19.2.1. The Premature, Immature and Stunted Foal
19.2.2. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
19.2.3. Failure of Passive Transfer of Immunity
19.2.4. Isoerythrolysis
19.2.5. Neonatal Sepsis

19.3. Neonatal Respiratory, Cardiac, Neurological and Musculoskeletal Pathologies

19.3.1. Neonatal Respiratory Pathologies Respiratory Bacterial Pathologies Viral Respiratory Pathologies Rib Fractures

19.3.2. Neonatal Cardiac Pathologies Patent Ductus Arteriosus Foramen Ovale Tetralogy of Fallot

19.3.3. Neonatal Neurological Pathologies Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy Septic Encephalitis, Meningitis and Metabolic Encephalopathies Congenital Neurological Pathologies

19.3.4. Neonatal Musculoskeletal Pathologies Vitamin E and Selenium Deficiency

19.4. Neonatal Gastrointestinal, Genitourinary and Endocrine Pathologies

19.4.1. Neonatal Gastrointestinal Pathologies Bacterial and Viral Diarrhea Meconium Impaction Congenital Gastrointestinal Pathologies Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers

19.4.2. Neonatal Genitourinary Pathologies Omphalophlebitis and Omphaloarteritis Patent Urachus Bladder Rupture

19.4.3. Neonatal Endocrine Pathologies Thyroid Alterations Hypoglycemia, Hyperglycemia and Lack of Maturation of the Endocrine System

19.5. Identification and Stabilization of the Patient with Ruptured Bladder or Persistent Urachus

19.5.1. Omphalophlebitis, Omphaloarteritis and Patent Urachus
19.5.2. Bladder Rupture
19.5.3. Diagnostic Assessment and Stabilization Treatments
19.5.4. Medical Treatment and Surgical Options

19.6. Diagnostic Imaging of the Chest and Abdominal Cavity of the Foal

19.6.1. Diagnostic Imaging the Chest Technical Basis Radiology Ultrasound Computerized Tomography Thoracic Pathology

19.6.2. Diagnostic Imaging of the Abdomen Technical Basis Radiology Ultrasound Abdominal Pathology

19.7. Treatment of Septic Arthritis Umbilical Herniorrhaphy

19.7.1. Pathophysiology and Diagnosis of Synovial Infections in the Foal
19.7.2. Treatment of Septic Arthritis in the Foal
19.7.3. Etiopathogenesis and Diagnosis of Umbilical Hernias
19.7.4. Umbilical Herniorrhaphy: Surgical Techniques

19.8. Angular Deformities Treatment

19.8.1. Etiopathogenesis
19.8.2. Diagnosis
19.8.3. Conservative Treatment
19.8.4. Surgical Treatment.

19.9. Flexural Deformities Treatment

19.9.1. Etiopathogenesis
19.9.2. Diagnosis
19.9.3. Conservative Treatment
19.9.4. Surgical Management

19.10. Diagnosis of Developmental Diseases in the Foal Treatment of Physitis, Epiphysitis and Hoof Management Guidelines for Healthy Foals

19.10.1. Etiopathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment of different forms of Physitis, Epiphysitis, Osteochondrosis and Subchondral Cysts
19.10.2. Evaluation of Poise in the Healthy Foal
19.10.3. Hoof Trimming Guideline in the Healthy Foal

Module 20. Advanced Therapeutic Protocols and Toxicology

20.1. Sedation and Total Intravenous Anesthesia

20.1.1. Total Intravenous Anesthesia General Considerations Patient and Procedure Preparation Pharmacology Total Intravenous Anesthesia in Short-Term Procedures Total Intravenous Anesthesia in Procedures of Medium Duration Total Intravenous Anesthesia in Long-Term Procedures

20.1.2. Sedation for On-Station Procedures General Considerations Patient Preparation/Procedure Technique: Bolus and Continuous Intravenous Infusions Pharmacology Drug Combinations

20.2. Pain Relief in Horses

20.2.1. Detection of Pain in Hospitalized Patients and Multimodal Analgesia
20.2.2. Types of NSAIDs
20.2.3. Alpha-2-Agonists and Opioids
20.2.4. Local Anesthetics
20.2.5. Other Drugs Used for Pain Control in Equines
20.2.6. Complementary Therapies: Acupuncture, Shockwaves, Chiropractic, Laser

20.3. Correction of the Hydro-Electrolytic Balance

20.3.1. General Considerations on Fluid Therapy Objective and Key Concepts Organic Fluid Distribution Assessment of Patient Needs

20.3.2. Types of Fluid Crystalloids Colloids Supplements

20.3.3. Routes of Administration Intravenous Oral

20.3.4. Practical Principles of Fluid Therapy Calculation
20.3.5. Associated Complications

20.4. Specific Considerations of Acid-Base Equilibrium in Horses

20.4.1. Specific Considerations of Acid-Base Equilibrium in Horses Assessment of the Patient's Acid-Base Status Role of Bicarbonate, Chloride and Anion Gap

20.4.2. Metabolic Acidosis and Alkalosis
20.4.3. Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis
20.4.4. Compensatory Mechanisms
20.4.5. Base Excess

20.5. Pharmacological Considerations in the Sport Horse

20.5.1. Equestrian Sports Regulation
20.5.2. Doping Definition Medication Control Objectives Sampling and Accredited Laboratories Classification of Substances

20.5.3. Types of Doping
20.5.4. Withdrawal Time Factors Affecting Withdrawal Time Detection Time Regulatory Policies Animal Disposal Rate Factors to Consider in Determining Withdrawal Time Dose Administered Formulation Route of Administration Individual Pharmacokinetics Sensitivity of Analytical Procedures Sample Behavior Matrix Environmental Persistence of Substances and Environmental Pollution

20.6. Intensive Care of the Neonatal Foal

20.6.1. Types of Catheters, Infusion Sets, Nasogastric and Urinary Probes for the Maintenance of Intensive Care in the Foal
20.6.2. Types of Fluids, Colloids, Plasmotherapy and Hemotherapy
20.6.3. Total and Partial Parenteral Feeding
20.6.4. Antibiotic Therapy, Analgesia and Other Important Medications
20.6.5. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

20.7. Adult Intensive Care

20.7.1. General Intensive Care Considerations
20.7.2. Intensive Care Procedures and Techniques Vascular Access: Maintenance and Care Arterial and Venous Pressure Monitoring

20.7.3. Cardiovascular Support Shock Supportive Drugs: Inotropes and Vasopressors Support Strategies

20.7.4. Respiratory Support Management of Respiratory Distress

20.7.5. Critically Ill Patient Nutrition
20.7.6. Neurological Patient Care Medical and Supportive Management of the Neurological Horse Trauma Encephalopathies and Myeloencephalopathies Specific Management of the Recumbent Horse

20.8. Toxicology I

20.8.1. Digestive System Toxicology
20.8.2. Liver Toxicology
20.8.3. Toxicology Affecting the Central Nervous System

20.9. Toxicology II

20.9.1. Toxicology Producing Clinical Signs Related to the Cardiovascular and Hemolymphatic Systems.
20.9.2. Toxicology Producing Clinical Signs related to the Skin, Musculoskeletal System and General Condition.
20.9.3. Toxicology Producing Clinical Signs Related to the Urinary System.
20.9.4. Toxicological Problems Causing Sudden Death.

20.10. Euthanasia Procedures

20.10.1. General Considerations Geriatric Horse

20.10.2. Mechanisms of action for Hypothermia.
20.10.3. Chemical Euthanasia Methods
20.10.4. Physical Euthanasia Methods
20.10.5. Euthanasia Protocol
20.10.6. Confirmation of Death 

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