A complete and comprehensive update in Neurology, Ophthalmology and Extended Therapeutic Protocols in Equine Ambulatory Practice with the most complete and effective preparatory program in the online training market"

This course will review the most important aspects of neurological and ophthalmological pathologies.

The acute onset of many of the neurological conditions requires decisions to be made in a short time. Therefore, it is necessary to master the neurological examination to extract as much information as possible from our patient and work on the basis of the clinical pictures and their differential diagnoses to effectively deal with these processes in the field.

Sedation and anesthesia in the field is a common clinical practice that requires a certain degree of specialization in order to be able to adapt it to the patient being treated at any given moment. The chapter will provide the clinician with the necessary technical skills to be able to induce, maintain and reverse anesthesia in the field from beginning to end, ensuring the lowest possible risks for the patient and guaranteeing the smooth running of the surgical procedure.

On the other hand, topics specific to hospital intensive care units will be addressed, such as pain management, correction of hydro-electrolyte and acid-base balance, intensive care in neonates and adults, with the aim of providing the student with the necessary skills to enable him/her to treat a patient with ICU requirements while outside a hospital setting.

Join the elite, with this highly efficient specialization and open new paths to your professional progress"

This Postgraduate Certificate in Neurology, Ophthalmology and Expanded Therapeutic Protocols in Equine Ambulatory Practice offers you the characteristics of a high-level scientific teaching and technological course.  These are some of its most notable features: 

  • The latest technology in online teaching software
  • A highly visual teaching system, supported by graphic and schematic contents that are easy to assimilate and understand
  • Practical cases presented by practising experts
  • State-of-the-art interactive video systems
  • Teaching supported by telepractice
  • Continuous updating and recycling systems
  • Autonomous learning: full compatibility with other occupations
  • Practical exercises for self-evaluation and learning verification
  • Support groups and educational synergies: questions to the expert, debate and knowledge forums
  • Communication with the teacher and individual reflection work
  • Content that is accessible from any fixed or portable device with an Internet connection
  • Supplementary documentation databases are permanently available, even after the course

A complete program that will allow you to acquire the most advanced knowledge in all the areas of intervention of the Equine Veterinarian"

Our teaching staff is made up of professionals from different fields related to this specialty. In this way, we ensure that we provide you with the training update we are aiming for. A multidisciplinary team of professionals trained and experienced in different environments, who will develop the theoretical knowledge in an efficient way, but, above all, will put at your disposal their practical knowledge from their own experience: one of the differential qualities of this specialization.

The efficiency of the methodological design of this Professional Master's Degree, enhances the student's understanding of the subject. Developed by a multidisciplinary team of e-learning experts, it integrates the latest advances in educational technology. This way, you will be able to study with a range of comfortable and versatile multimedia tools that will give you the operability you need in your training. 

The design of this program is based on Problem-Based Learning: an approach that conceives learning as a highly practical process. To achieve this remotely, we will use telepractice:  with the help of an innovative interactive video system, and learning from an expert, you will be able to acquire the knowledge as if you were actually dealing with the scenario you are learning about. A concept that will allow you to integrate and fix learning in a more realistic and permanent way.

With a methodological design based on proven teaching techniques, this innovative course will take you through different teaching approaches to allow you to learn in a dynamic and effective way"

diploado online neurologia oftalmologia

Our innovative telepractice concept will give you the opportunity to learn through an immersive experience, which will provide you with a faster integration and a much more realistic view of the contents: “learning from an expert"


The contents have been developed by different experts, with a clear purpose: to ensure that our students acquire each and every one of the skills necessary to become true experts in this field. 

A complete and well-structured program that will take you to the highest standards of quality and success.  

A comprehensive teaching program, structured in well-developed teaching units, oriented towards learning that is compatible with your personal and professional life"

Module 1. Nervous System and Ophthalmology  

1.1. Neuroanatomical Localization of Neurological Injuries in the Horse  

1.1.1. Neuroanatomical Peculiarities of the Horse 
1.1.2. Medical History 
1.1.3. Neurological Examination Protocol  Head Assessment Behavior, Consciousness, Positioning and Cranial Nerves Posture and Motor Function Assessment Gradation of Alterations Neck and Thoracic Limb Evaluation Evaluation of the Trunk and Pelvic Limb Evaluation of Tail and Anus 

1.1.4. Complementary Methods of Diagnostic 

1.2. Disorders Affecting the Cerebral Cortex and Brainstem  

1.2.1. Consciousness State Regulation 
1.2.2. Cranial Trauma Aetiopathogenesis. Symptoms and Syndromes Diagnosis Treatment Prognosis 

1.2.3. Metabolic Encephalopathy Hepatic Encephalopathy 

1.2.4. Seizures and Epilepsy Types of Seizure Disorders Types of Epilepsy (ILAE Classification) (International League Against Epilepsy) Treatment 

1.2.5 Narcolepsy 

1.3. Cerebellar or Vestibular Alterations 

1.3.1. Coordination and Balance 
1.3.2. Cerebellar Syndrome Cerebellar Abiotrophy 

1.3.3. Vestibular Syndrome Peripheral Vestibular Syndrome Central Vestibular Syndrome Head Trauma and Vestibular Syndrome Osteoarthropathy Temporoiohidea 

1.4. Spinal Alterations  

1.4.1. Cervical Stenotic Myelopathy Aetiopathogenesis. Symptomatology and Neurological Examination Diagnosis Radiology Myelography Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computerized Axial Tomography, Gammagraphy. Treatment 

1.4.2. Equine Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy (EDM) 
1.4.3. Spinal Trauma 

1.5. Bacterial, Fungal and Parasitic Infections of the Nervous System  

1.5.1. Bacterial Encephalitis or Encephalomyelitis Etiological Agents Symptomatology Diagnosis  Treatment 

1.5.2. Fungal Encephalitis 
1.5.3 Equine Protozoal Encephalomyelitis (EPM) Aetiopathogenesis. Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment 

1.5.4. Meningoencefalomielitis Verminosa Aetiopathogenesis. Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment 

1.6. Viral Infections of the Nervous System  

1.6.1. Equine Encephalomyelitis due to Herpesvirus Type -1 (EHV-1) Aetiopathogenesis. Clinical Picture Diagnosis Treatment 

1.6.2. West Nile Virus Encephalomyelitis Aetiopathogenesis. Clinical Picture Diagnosis Treatment 

1.6.3. Rabies Aetiopathogenesis. Clinical Picture Diagnosis Treatment 

1.6.4. Borna, Hendra and other Viral Encephalitis Viruses 

1.7. Ocular Examination Ocular Nerve Blocks and Sub-palpebral Catheter Placement  

1.7.1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Eyeball 
1.7.2. Optic Nerve Blocks 
1.7.3. Ophthalmologic examination 
1.7.4. Basic Diagnostic Tests 
1.7.5. Advanced Diagnostic Tests 
1.7.6. Sub-palpebral Catheter Placement 

1.8. Palpebral Pathologies Ocular Perforations Entropion Correction

1.8.1. Anatomy of Adnexal Tissues 
1.8.2. Eyelid Alterations 
1.8.3. Entropion Correction 
1.8.4. Ocular Perforations 

1.9. Corneal Ulcers  

1.9.1. General Aspects and Classification of Corneal Ulcers 
1.9.2. Simple, Complex and Severe Ulcers 
1.9.3. Indolent Ulcer 
1.9.4. Infectious Keratitis 
1.9.5 Corneal Surgery 

1.10. Uveitis and Ocular Medical Pathologies  

1.10.1. Immune-Mediated Keratitis 
1.10.2. Stromal Abscess 
1.10.3. Equine Recurrent Uveitis 
1.10.4. Crystalline Lens Alterations 
1.10.5. Posterior Segment Alterations and Glaucoma 
1.10.6. Neoplasms  

Module 2. Advanced Therapeutic Protocols and Toxicology  

2.1. Sedation and Total Intravenous Anesthesia  

2.1.1. Total Intravenous Anesthesia General Considerations Patient and Procedure Preparation Pharmacology Total Intravenous Anesthesia in Short-Term Procedures Total Intravenous Anesthesia in Procedures of Medium Duration Total Intravenous Anesthesia in Long-Term Procedures 

2.1.2. Sedation for On-Station Procedures General Considerations Patient Preparation/Procedure Technique: Bolus and Continuous Intravenous Infusions Pharmacology Drug Combinations 

2.2. Pain Relief in Horses  

2.2.1. Detection of Pain in Hospitalized Patients and Multimodal Analgesia 
2.2.2. Types of NSAIDs 
2.2.3. a 2 agonists and opiates 
2.2.4. Local anesthetics 
2.2.5. Other Drugs Used for Pain Control in Equines 
2.2.6. Complementary Therapies: Acupuncture, Shockwaves, Chiropractic, Laser 

2.3. Correction of the Hydro-Electrolytic Balance  

2.3.1. General Considerations on Fluid Therapy Objective and Key Concepts Organic Fluid Distribution Assessment of Patient Needs 

2.3.2. Types of Fluid Crystalloids Colloids Supplements 

2.3.3. Routes of Administration Intravenous Oral 

2.3.4. Practical Principles of Fluid Therapy Calculation 
2.3.5. Associated Complications 

2.4. Specific Considerations of Acid-Base Equilibrium in Horses  

2.4.1. Specific Considerations of Acid-Base Equilibrium in Horses Assessment of the Patient's Acid-Base Status Role of Bicarbonate, Chloride and Anion Gap 

2.4.2. Metabolic Acidosis and Alkalosis 
2.4.3. Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis 
2.4.4. Compensatory Mechanisms 
2.4.5. Base Excess 

2.5. Pharmacological Considerations in the Sport Horse  

2.5.1. Equestrian Sports Regulation 
2.5.2. Doping Definition Medication Control Objectives Sampling and Accredited Laboratories Classification of Substances 

2.5.3. Types of Doping 
2.5.4. Withdrawal Time Factors Affecting Withdrawal Time Detection Time Regulatory Policies Animal Disposal Rate Factors to Consider in Determining Withdrawal Time Dose Administered Formulation Route of Administration Individual Pharmacokinetics Sensitivity of Analytical Procedures Sample Behavior Matrix Environmental persistence of substances and environmental pollution

2.6. Intensive Care of the Neonatal Foal  

2.6.1. Types of Catheters, Infusion Sets, Nasogastric and Urinary Probes for the Maintenance of Intensive Care in the Foal 
2.6.2. Types of Fluids, Colloids, Plasmotherapy and Hemotherapy 
2.6.3. Total and Partial Parenteral Feeding 
2.6.4. Antibiotic Therapy, Analgesia and Other Important Medications 
2.6.5. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation 

2.7. Adult Intensive Care  

2.7.1. General Intensive Care Considerations 
2.7.2. Intensive Care Procedures and Techniques Vascular Access: Maintenance and Care Arterial and Venous Pressure Monitoring 

2.7.3. Cardiovascular Support Shock. Supportive Drugs: Inotropes and Vasopressors Support Strategies 

2.7.4 Respiratory Support Management of Respiratory Distress 

2.7.5. Critically Ill Patient Nutrition 
2.7.6. Neurological Patient Care Medical and Supportive Management of the Neurological Horse 
 Trauma  Encephalopathies and Myeloencephalopathies Specific Management of the Recumbent Horse 

2.8. Toxicology I  

2.8.1. Digestive System Toxicology 
2.8.2. Liver Toxicology 
2.8.3. Toxicology Affecting the Central Nervous System 

2.9. Toxicology II  

2.9.1. Toxicology Producing Clinical Signs Related to the Cardiovascular and Hemolymphatic Systems. 
2.9.2. Toxicology Producing Clinical Signs related to the Skin, Musculoskeletal System and General Condition. 
2.9.3. Toxicology Producing Clinical Signs Related to the Urinary System. 
2.9.4. Toxicological Problems Causing Sudden Death. 

2.10. Euthanasia Procedures  

2.10.1. General Considerations Geriatric Horse 

2.10.2. Mechanisms of action for Hypothermia. 
2.10.3. Chemical Euthanasia Methods 
2.10.4. Physical Euthanasia Methods 
2.10.5. Euthanasia Protocol 
2.10.6. Confirmation of Death