This program is the best option you can find to specialize in Veterinary Cardiology and make more accurate diagnoses”

Cardiovascular disorders in animals are highly significant because they can affect their quality of life and life expectancy. Advanced knowledge of cardiology is indispensable for large animal veterinarians: ruminants (cattle, sheep, goats), camelids (alpacas, camels and llamas), swine (pigs, wild boars) and equidae (donkeys and mules).

Cardiology in ruminants and swine has been limited for a long time due to the limited literature and diagnostic limitations, especially in advanced therapeutic procedures.

Regarding Equidae, a high number of horses are used for sporting purposes and cardiac pathologies limit their capacity and even force the animal to withdraw from competition. This is more evident the more demanding the equine is in terms of sport and cardiovascular effort. The management of food species differs, but it also affects their production capacity.

In recent years, there has been a boom in the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, such as intracardiac electrocardiograms, electrophysiological mapping in arrhythmias, pacemaker implantation and other intracardiac devices that can be implemented in larger species. These advances, which are necessary for an adequate clinical approach, are not available in books.

Therefore, this Postgraduate Certificate offers a comprehensive and well-developed syllabus that addresses advanced cardiology topics, providing detailed descriptions of the different procedures performed depending on the species, as well as a guide for clinical decision-making and patient selection.

This program covers the basics of Cardiology and delves into the most up-to-date and advanced techniques currently available, offering extensive and in-depth content.

The Postgraduate Certificate in Cardiovascular Physiology in Large Animals brings together all the detailed information in the different areas of Cardiology at a high and advanced level of specialization and is taught by renowned professors in the field of internal medicine, cardiology and minimally invasive surgery in veterinary medicine.

Don't miss the opportunity to study this Postgraduate Certificate with us. It's the perfect opportunity to advance your career and stand out in an industry with high demand for professionals”

This Postgraduate Certificate in Cardiovascular Physiology in Large Animals contains the most complete and up-to-date educational program on the market. The most important features of the program include:

  • Development of practical cases presented by experts in Cardiovascular Physiology in Large Animals
  • The graphic, schematic, and practical contents with which they are created, provide scientific and practical information on the disciplines that are essential for professional practice
  • The latest developments in Cardiovascular Physiology in Large Animals
  • Practical exercises where self-assessment can be used to improve learning
  • Special emphasis on innovative methodologies in Cardiovascular Physiology in Large Animals
  • Theoretical lessons, questions to the expert, debate forums on controversial topics, and individual reflection assignments
  • Content that is accessible from any fixed or portable device with an Internet connection

This Postgraduate Certificate is the best investment you can make in the selection of a refresher program to update your knowledge in Cardiovascular Physiology in Large Animals"

The multimedia content, developed with the latest educational technology, will provide the professional with situated and contextual learning, i.e., a simulated environment that will provide immersive training programmed to train in real situations.

This program is designed around Problem Based Learning, whereby the specialist must try to solve the different professional practice situations that arise during the academic year. For this purpose, the professional will be assisted by an innovative interactive video system created by renowned and experienced experts in Cardiovascular Physiology in Large Animals. 

This training comes with the best didactic material, providing you with a contextual approach that will facilitate your learning"

This 100% online Postgraduate Certificate will allow you to combine your studies with your professional work while increasing your knowledge in this field"


The structure of the content has been designed by the best professionals in the field of Cardiovascular Physiology in Large Animals, with extensive experience and recognized prestige in the profession, backed by the volume of cases reviewed, studied, and diagnosed, and with extensive knowledge of new technologies applied to veterinary studies.   

This Postgraduate Certificate contains the most complete and up-to-date scientific program on the market” 

Module 1. Complementary Non-Invasive Cardiovascular Tests in Large Animals: Equidae, Ruminants, Swine

1.1. General Echocardiography Concepts

1.1.1. Ultrasound Characteristics
1.1.2. Ultrasound-Tissue Interaction
1.1.3. Ultrasound Image Formation
1.1.4. Equipment Features

1.2. Basic Ultrasound Modes

1.2.1. M-mode Ultrasound
1.2.2. Two-Dimensional Ultrasound
1.2.3. Doppler Technique
1.2.4. Speckle Tracking

1.3. Special Ultrasound Modes and Cardiac Formulas

1.3.1. Contrast Ultrasound
1.3.2. Stress Ultrasound
1.3.3. Transesophageal Ultrasound
1.3.4. Fetal Cardiac Ultrasound
1.3.5. Cardiac Formulas

1.4. Ultrasound Views

1.4.1. Right Hemithorax Views
1.4.2. Left. Hemithorax Views

1.5. Electrocardiogram Interpretation

1.5.1. Assessing Cardiac Function
1.5.2. Assessment of the Structure and Dimensions of the Chambers

1.6. What is an Electrocardiogram?

1.6.1. Anatomical and Electrophysiological Foundations
1.6.2. What Is It and How Does It Originate?

1.7. Recording Techniques

1.7.1. Einthoven's Classical System
1.7.2. Base-Apex Systems and Handheld Devices
1.7.3. Electrocardiogram Acquisition Modes

1.8. Electrocardiogram Interpretation

1.8.1. Normal Electrocardiogram
1.8.2. Determining Heart Rate
1.8.3. Interpreting Heart Rate
1.8.4. Electrocardiogram Waveform Interpretation

1.9. Electrocardiogram Abnormalities

1.9.1. Artefacts
1.9.2. Wave Morphological Abnormalities

1.10. How to Deal with an Electrocardiogram?

1.10.1. Reading Protocol
1.10.2. Tricks

Module 2. Cardiac Response to Exercise, Sports Performance and Sudden Death in Sports Horses

2.1. The Cardiovascular System

2.1.1. Anatomical Review
2.1.2. Blood
2.1.3. Cardiovascular Function During Exercise
2.1.4. Cardiovascular Response to Exercise

2.2. Energy Production During Exercise

2.2.1. ATP.
2.2.2. Metabolic Routes
2.2.3. Anaerobic Threshold
2.2.4. Interrelation of the Different Energy Systems
2.2.5. Oxygen Consumption

2.3. Practical Aspects of Physical Preparation

2.3.1. Basic Principles
2.3.2. Cardiovascular Fitness
2.3.3. Cardiovascular Overtraining
2.3.4. Cardiovascular Detraining

2.4. Discipline-Specific Cardiovascular Fitness Training

2.4.1. Dressage
2.4.2. Jump
2.4.3. Full Competition
2.4.4. Raid
2.4.5. Racing
2.4.6. Polo

2.5. Cardiovascular Fitness Assessment Test

2.5.1. Test Under Controlled Conditions
2.5.2. Field Test

2.6. Complementary Tests to Assess Clinical Relevance Cardiac Pathologies During Exercise

2.6.1. Exercise Electrocardiography
2.6.2. Post-Exercise Echocardiography

2.7. Laboratory Analysis for Cardiac Pathology Evaluation

2.7.1. Respiratory System Samples
2.7.2. CK
2.7.3. Troponins
2.7.4. BNP
2.7.5. ANP

2.8. Cardiac Pathologies Affecting Sports Performance

2.8.1. Arrhythmias
2.8.2. Structural Pathologies

2.9. Sudden Death

2.9.1. Definition and Prevalence
2.9.2. Clinical Assessment of Sudden Death Risk

2.10. Cardiac Pathologies Related to Sudden Death

2.10.1. Arrhythmias
2.10.2. Structural Pathologies

A unique, key and decisive training experience to boost your professional development"