Veterinarians must continue their training to adapt to new developments in this field” 

Cardiovascular disorders in animals are highly significant because they can affect their quality of life and life expectancy. Advanced knowledge of cardiology is indispensable for large animal veterinarians: ruminants (cattle, sheep, goats), camelids (alpacas, camels and llamas), swine (pigs, wild boars) and equidae (donkeys and mules).

Cardiology in ruminants and swine has been limited for a long time due to the limited literature and diagnostic limitations, especially in advanced therapeutic procedures.

Regarding Equidae, a high number of horses are used for sporting purposes and cardiac pathologies limit their capacity and even force the animal to withdraw from competition. This is more evident the more demanding the equine is in terms of sport and cardiovascular effort. The management of food species differs, but it also affects their production capacity.

In recent years, there has been a boom in the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, such as intracardiac electrocardiograms, electrophysiological mapping in arrhythmias, pacemaker implantation and other intracardiac devices that can be implemented in larger species. These advances, which are necessary for an adequate clinical approach, are not available in books.

Therefore, this Postgraduate Certificate offers a comprehensive and well-developed syllabus that addresses advanced cardiology topics, providing detailed descriptions of the different procedures performed depending on the species, as well as a guide for clinical decision-making and patient selection.

This program covers the basics of Cardiology and delves into the most up-to-date and advanced techniques currently available, offering extensive and in-depth content. 

The Postgraduate Certificate in Cardiac Physiology and Pathophysiology in Large Animals brings together all the detailed information in the different areas of Cardiology at a high and advanced level of specialization, and is taught by renowned professors in the field of internal medicine, cardiology and minimally invasive surgery in veterinary medicine.

Don't miss the opportunity to study this Postgraduate Diploma with us. It's the perfect opportunity to advance your career and stand out in an industry with high demand for professionals”

This Postgraduate Certificate in and Cardiac Physiology and Pathophysiology in Large Animals contains the most complete and up-to-date educational program on the market. The most important features of the program include:

  • Practical cases presented by experts in Cardiac Physiology and Pathophysiology in Large Animals  
  • The graphic, schematic, and practical contents with which they are created, provide scientific and practical information on the disciplines that are essential for professional development.
  • Latest developments in Cardiac Physiology and Pathophysiology in Large Animals 
  • Practical exercises where self-assessment can be used to improve learning.
  • Special emphasis on innovative methodologies in Cardiac Physiology and Pathophysiology in Large Animals 
  • Theoretical lessons, questions to the expert, debate forums on controversial topics, and individual reflection assignments
  • Content that is accessible from any fixed or portable device with an Internet connection

This Specialist Diploma is the best investment you can make when choosing a refresher program to update your existing knowledge of Veterinary Cardiology"

The multimedia content, developed with the latest educational technology, will provide the professional with situated and contextual learning, i.e., a simulated environment that will provide immersive training programmed to train in real situations.

This program is designed around Problem-Based Learning, whereby the specialist must try to solve the different professional practice situations that arise during the academic year. For this purpose, the professional will be assisted by an innovative interactive video system created by renowned and experienced experts in Cardiac Physiology and Pathophysiology in Large Animals . 

This program includes exceptional teaching material, providing you with a contextual approach that will facilitate your learning”

This Postgraduate Certificate 100% online and will enable you to combine your studies while increasing your knowledge in this field”


The structure of the content has been designed by the best professionals in the field of Cardiovascular Physiology in Large Animals, with extensive experience and recognized prestige in the profession, backed by the volume of cases reviewed, studied, and diagnosed, and with extensive knowledge of new technologies applied to veterinary studies.   

This Postgraduate Certificate contains the most complete and up-to-date scientific program on the market” 

Module 1. Cardiac Embryology, Anatomy and Physiology in Large Animals: Equidae, Ruminants and Swine

1.1. Embryology I. Cardiac Tube and Cardiac Loop Formation

1.1.1. Cardiac Tube Formation
1.1.2. Cardiac Loop Formation

1.2. Embryology II. Formation of Cardiac Septa and Major Blood Vessels, Fetal and Transitional Blood Circulation

1.2.1. Cardiac Septa Formation
1.2.2. Major Blood Vessel Formation

1.3. Embryology III. Fetal and Transitional Blood Circulation

1.3.1. Fetal and Transitional Blood Circulation

1.4. Cardiac Anatomy I. Key Aspects

1.4.1. General Data
1.4.2. Orientation in the Thoracic Cavity.
1.4.3. Pericardium

1.5. Cardiac Anatomy II. Heart and Coronary Blood Vessels. Atria, Ventricles and Conduction System

1.5.1. Heart and Coronary Blood Vessels
1.5.2. Atria and Ventricles
1.5.3. Conduction System

1.6. Cardiac Physiology I. Cardiac Cycle, Cardiac Metabolism, Cardiac Muscle

1.6.1. Cardiac Cycle
1.6.2. Cardiac Metabolism
1.6.3. Ultrastructure of Cardiac Muscle

1.7. Cardiac Physiology II. Systolic Heart Function I

1.7.1. Preload
1.7.2. Afterload

1.8. Cardiac Physiology III. Systolic Heart Function II

1.8.1. Contractility
1.8.2. Hypertrophy
1.8.3. Wall Stress Curves

1.9. Cardiac Physiology IV. Flows and Neurohormonal Control of Circulation

1.9.1. Blood Flow.
1.9.2. Coronary Flow.
1.9.3. Neurohormone Control of Circulation

1.10. Cardiac Physiology V. Ion Channels and Action Potentials

1.10.1. Ion Channels
1.10.2. Action Potential

Module 2. Cardiovascular pathophysiology and pharmacology in large animals: equidae, ruminants and swine.

2.1. Pathophysiology of Arrhythmias

2.1.1. Arrhythmogenic Mechanisms

2.2. Syncope Pathophysiology

2.2.1. Collapse and Syncope
2.2.2. Mechanisms Involved in Syncope
2.2.3. Types of Syncope According to the Mechanism Involved

2.3. Heart Failure Pathophysiology

2.3.1. Definition
2.3.2. Mechanisms Involved

2.4. Types of Heart Failure

2.4.1. Systolic and Diastolic
2.4.2. Left and Right
2.4.3. Acute and Chronic

2.5. Compensatory Mechanisms in Heart Failure

2.5.1. Sympathetic Response
2.5.2. Endocrine Response
2.5.3. Neurohumoral Response

2.6. Cardiovascular Pharmacology I. Diuretics and Vasodilators

2.6.1. Diuretics
2.6.2. Vasodilators

2.7. Cardiovascular Pharmacology II. Calcium Channel Blockers and Digitalis

2.7.1. Calcium Blockers
2.7.2. Digitalis

2.8. Cardiovascular Pharmacology III. Adrenergic and Dopaminergic Receptor Agonists

2.8.1. Adrenergic
2.8.2. Dopaminergics

2.9. Antiarrhythmics I

2.9.1. Class I
2.9.2. Class II

2.10. Antiarrhythmics II

2.10.1. Class III
2.10.2. Others

Achieve professional success with this high-level training provided by prestigious professionals with extensive experience in the sector"