A complete review of the most fundamental philosophical themes, from the most purely theoretical to the most practical human issues”

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Contemporary human beings, lost in a morass of mutually exclusive political and ethical proposals, finds themselves in a state of stupor: What should I think, who is right, how should I act? In such circumstances of personal and intellectual shipwreck, Ortega's words become more timelier than ever: "When a human being does not know what to do, the only thing left is to think."

Apart from the human aspect, philosophy provides a different point of view on reality and on things, which makes it immensely attractive from a labor point of view. In today's job market, philosophers who complement their studies with master's degrees in investment and finance, for example, or economics students who enrich their intellectual background with master's degrees in philosophy are immensely valued and sought after by head-hunters from all over the world. The philosopher's ability to see things from a different perspective, to think outside the box, as it were, is a fundamental asset in the creative and frenetic world we live in.

Philosophy helps to see things, as the great Spinoza used to say: Aespecie Aeternitatis. That is to say, under a prism of eternity, knowing that in the great context of the world and the universe our actions are both relevant and insignificant. The role of philosophy as a consolatory discipline in the face of the evils and misfortunes of this world has always been fundamental, and it also allows us to better understand our nature, our actions, our morality, and our being. In short, philosophy helps us to grow as people, to mature as individuals, to be more responsible citizens and to improve our 
work performance.

This program approaches Philosophy from a global perspective, but at the same time totally accessible. Other Professional Master’s Degree focus on the purely theoretical study of Philosophy, disconnecting it from the pedagogical aspect; this one will always try to maintain a teaching approach. Today it is more important than ever to offer a teaching of philosophy that is both rigorous and comprehensible. Students can expect to gain a complete body of knowledge of the most fundamental philosophical themes, from the most purely theoretical and metaphysical to the most practical and active human issues. 

Access the teaching of one of the most useful disciplines to comprehend human nature and its reasons”

This Professional Master’s Degree in Teaching Philosophy and Ethical Values contains the most complete and up-to-date program on the market. The most important features include:

  • More than 75 Practice cases presented by experts in the subject 
  • Its graphic, schematic and practical contents provide scientific and practical information on those disciplines that are essential for professional practice 
  • It contains practical exercises where the self-evaluation process can be carried out to improve learning 
  • Special emphasis on innovative methodologies  
  • All of this will be complemented by theoretical lessons, questions to the expert, debate forums on controversial topics, and individual reflection assignments 
  • Content that is accessible from any fixed or portable device with an Internet connection
  • Complementary content available in multimedia format 

Access the teaching of one of the most useful disciplines to comprehend human nature and its reasons. The Professional Master’s Degree in Teaching Philosophy and Ethical Values will enable you to approach this subject with the guarantee of a complete and well-developed program”

The teaching staff includes teaching professionals in Philosophy and Ethical Values who bring their experience to this program, as well as renowned specialists belonging to leading societies and prestigious universities. Thanks to its multimedia content developed with the latest educational technology, it will allow the professional a situated and contextual learning, that is to say, a simulated environment that will provide an immersive learning programmed to train in real situations. 

This program is designed around Problem-Based Learning, whereby the professional must try to solve the different professional practice situations that arise throughout the program. For that purpose, professionals will be assisted by an innovative, interactive video system created by renowned and experienced experts in Teaching Philosophy and Ethical Values who also have extensive teaching experience. 

Philosophy from a global perspective but perfectly accessible, with a direct pedagogical orientation"

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A program focused on the ABS system, Problem-Based Learning, which will enable you to learn through the experience of real cases and practical scenarios"


The syllabus for this Professional Master’s Degree has been created to gradually cover all the essential topics in the learning of the subject; from the knowledge of theoretical philosophy to the most practical part of its teaching. Finally, students who enroll in this Professional Master’s Degree will learn the different models of thought and their application in real life. A complete approach, fully focused on its practical application. 

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An exciting program that will provide you with a high degree of personal and curricular development” 

Module 1. The Nature of Philosophical Activity 

1.1. Philosophy as an Activity

1.1.1. Reflection and Inevitability
1.1.2. Philosophy and Community
1.1.3. Eternal Discussions
1.1.4. Today's Topics
1.1.5. Interest and Reflection
1.1.6. What Is Philosophy for?
1.1.7. Is It Necessary to Prepare for Philosophical Activity?
1.1.8. Philosophy and Life
1.1.9. Philosophy and Death

1.2. The Need for Philosophy

1.2.1. The Socratic Attitude
1.2.2. The Forms of Creation
1.2.3. Theory and Practice of a Reflective Life
1.2.4. The Life of the Wayfarer  
1.2.5. The Limits of Thought
1.2.6. Reflection and Pursuit
1.2.7. Means and Ends
1.2.8. Virtue and Truth
1.2.9. Expression and Mediocrity
1.2.10. Art and Science without Philosophy

1.3. Being a Person

1.3.1. Delving into Language
1.3.2. The Individual and Community
1.3.3. Person and Body
1.3.4. Mind and the World
1.3.5. Meaning
1.3.6. Linguistic Communication
1.3.7. Concept
1.3.8. Understanding and Knowledge
1.3.9. Culture: The World of Sense
1.3.10. Cultural Diversity and Understanding

1.4. Human Action

1.4.1. Rational and Non-Rational Animals
1.4.2. Responsibility and Irresponsibility 
1.4.3. Free Will
1.4.4. Knowledge and Reason
1.4.5. Theory and Truth
1.4.6. Community and Conversation
1.4.7. Pluralism and Relativism
1.4.8. Ethical Values
1.4.9. Action and Responsibility
1.4.10. Action and Responsibility 

1.5. Language and Reality

1.5.1. The Individual and Community
1.5.2. The Individual and Person: Nature
1.5.3. Community and Person: Society
1.5.4. The Egg, The Chicken and The Standard
1.5.5. The Content of Thought 
1.5.6. Learn to Judge
1.5.7. Understanding and Education
1.5.8. Reality and What We Judge
1.5.9. What Can Be Understood 
1.5.10. Youth and Old Age

1.6. Thought and Reality

1.6.1. Belief and Desire
1.6.2. What Is Done and What Happens
1.6.3. Educating and Educating Oneself
1.6.4. Thinking and Transforming Reality
1.6.5. The Burden of Reality
1.6.6. Philosophy as Scepticism
1.6.7. Science and Scepticism
1.6.8. Knowledge without Dogmas
1.6.9. Thought and Construction
1.6.10. Living with and without Beliefs

1.7. Philosophy and Community

1.7.1. Thinking with Others
1.7.2. Social Representations
1.7.3. Thinking in Practice
1.7.4. Philosophy as Critical Thought
1.7.5. Community Building
1.7.6. Recognition of the Other
1.7.7. The Right to Think
1.7.8. Logic and Rhetoric
1.7.9. Philosophy and Communication

1.8. Philosophy and Values

1.8.1. Rationality and Assessment
1.8.2. Value Judgments in Ethics and Aesthetics
1.8.3. Value Concepts
1.8.4. Description and Prescription
1.8.5. Morals and Sciences
1.8.6. The Status of Values
1.8.7. Value Cognitivism
1.8.8. Moral Scepticism
1.8.9. Rules and Sanctions

1.9. Philosophy and Basic Education

1.9.1. Education in Children and Adults
1.9.2. Education for Life
1.9.3. Self-Knowledge 
1.9.4. Authority and Authoritarianism
1.9.5. Education as a Search for Understanding
1.9.6. Philosophy as a Search for Wisdom
1.9.7. Education and Creativity
1.9.8. Education and Expression
1.9.9. Philosophy of Education

1.10. Philosophy and Health

1.10.1. Understanding and Health
1.10.2. Education and Health
1.10.3. Mental and Physical Health
1.10.4. Self-Care
1.10.5. Life in Conflict
1.10.6. Emotional Understanding
1.10.7. Harmony and Adaptation
1.10.8. The Need to Live in Conflict
1.10.9. The Need for Improvement

Module 2. Exploring Rationality

2.1. Rational Beings

2.1.1. Did We Discover Rationality?  
2.1.2. What Is the Mental? 
2.1.3. Mental States
2.1.4. Mental Processes
2.1.5. Mind and Body: What Controls What? 
2.1.6. Thought and Speech
2.1.7. The Self and the Mind
2.1.8. Can What We Think Be Controlled? 
2.1.9. Thinking without Thinking

2.2. Thought and Action

2.2.1. Can We Know Others' Thoughts? 
2.2.2. Can We Know Our Own Thoughts? 
2.2.3. Forms of Self-Knowledge
2.2.4. Self-Knowledge or Expression?  
2.2.5. Thoughts and Responsibility
2.2.6. Action and Responsibility
2.2.7. The Slavery of Thought
2.2.8. Doing in order to Think
2.2.9. Learning to Converse
2.2.10. Feelings and Emotions

2.3. Rationality and Mind

2.3.1. The Thinking Brain: Debunking Myths. I
2.3.2. The Thinking Mind: Debunking Myths. II
2.3.3. What We Believe We Are
2.3.4. When Is There a Mind? 
2.3.5. Biological Machines
2.3.6. Biological Machines 
2.3.7. Person and Meaning
2.3.8. People and Machines
2.3.9. The Machine of Understanding

2.4. The Content of Thought

2.4.1. What We Believe and What Is
2.4.2. Thought and Truth
2.4.3. Epistemological Falsification
2.4.4. Basic Beliefs and Ordinary Language
2.4.5. Beliefs and Community
2.4.6. Where Is Reality? 
2.4.7. Reality and Fiction
2.4.8. The Value of Narration
2.4.9. Building Reality

2.5. The Rules of Thought

2.5.1. The Rules of Thought
2.5.2. Thought as Intuition
2.5.3. Explicit and Implicit Rules
2.5.4. Constitutive Rules
2.5.5. Thought as Playing
2.5.6. Rationality and Rules
2.5.7. Learning Rules
2.5.8. Teaching Rules
2.5.9. Normative Universes
2.5.10. What Are Norms? 

2.6. Understanding and Meaning

2.6.1. Beings that Understand
2.6.2. Understanding and Concepts
2.6.3. Practical Understanding
2.6.4. Degrees of Understanding
2.6.5. How Is It Possible to Improve Understanding?
2.6.6. Education and Degrees of Understanding
2.6.7. Understanding and Coherence
2.6.8. Understanding and Meaning  
2.6.9. Emotional Understanding? 

2.7. Thought and Community

2.7.1. When Is There a Community? 
2.7.2. Conditions for Speech
2.7.3. Conditions for Thought
2.7.4. Community and Practice
2.7.5. Institution and Community
2.7.6. The Individual and Community: Which Precedes the Other?
2.7.7. Ordinary Language
2.7.8. Conceptual Specialization
2.7.9. Building the Social Fabric

2.8. Perceiving Rationality

2.8.1. Seeing What Cannot Be Seen
2.8.2. Seeing the Norm
2.8.3. Perception and Concepts
2.8.4. Perceiving and Discriminating
2.8.5. Objectivity and Projection
2.8.6. Being and Perceiving
2.8.7. The Trained Eye
2.8.8. Seeing What Can Be Seen  
2.8.9. Superficiality 
2.8.10. Depth

2.9. Rationality and Value

2.9.1. What There Is and What We Project
2.9.2. Reflecting and Theorizing
2.9.3. Two Modes in Philosophy: Therapy and Theorization
2.9.4. Philosophy and Social Science
2.9.5. Philosophy and Discourse
2.9.6. Philosophy and Daily Life
2.9.7. Theorizing about People
2.9.8. Empiricism and Rationalism
2.9.9. The Place of Philosophy in the Scientific Community

Module 3. Thinking and Intervening in the Public Sphere

3.1. Conversation

3.1.1. Conversation and Humanity
3.1.2. Conversation Rules
3.1.3. What 'We All' Think
3.1.4. Disagreements
3.1.5. Adversaries
3.1.6. Enemies
3.1.7. Differences

3.2. Beliefs and Value Judgments

3.2.1. Some Examples
3.2.2. The Nature of Personal Character
3.2.3. The Nature of Universal Character
3.2.4. Unacceptable Judgments
3.2.5. Claiming Rights
3.2.6. The Concept of Ideology

3.3. Public and Private

3.3.1. Personal Identity
3.3.2. Political Representation
3.3.3. Practical Rationality
3.3.4. The State of Nature
3.3.5. The Idea of Social Contract
3.3.6. Communitarianism
3.3.7. The Link between Ethics and Politics

3.4. Autonomy and Heteronomy

3.4.1. Kant and the Enlightenment
3.4.2. Cowardice and Laziness
3.4.3. Underage
3.4.4. Comfort and Heteronomy
3.4.5. Tolerance vs. Recognition
3.4.6. Being Dependent of Others
3.4.7. Thinking About the Present
3.4.8. The Idea of "I"

3.5. Current Public Space

3.5.1. The Contemporary Agora
3.5.2. Social Networks
3.5.3. Discussions in the Media
3.5.4. The Problem of Post-Truth in the Media
3.5.5. Political Campaigns
3.5.6. Understanding Advertising

3.6. The Idea of Normality

3.6.1. Knowledge and Power
3.6.2. Hegemonic and Dominant Discourse
3.6.3. Dissidence
3.6.4. Biopolitics
3.6.5. Social Control
3.6.6. The Social Character of Perception
3.6.7. Denaturalizing Nature

3.7. Own and Foreign

3.7.1. Social Identity
3.7.2. The Problem of Others
3.7.3. The Foreigner
3.7.4. Cultural Relativism
3.7.5. The Agreement for Difference
3.7.6. Rules and Values
3.7.7. The Global South Epistemology Project

3.8. Self-Care

3.8.1. Socrates and Self-Reflection
3.8.2. Reflecting on One’s Beliefs
3.8.3. Avoiding Action without Substantiation
3.8.4. Body Care
3.8.5. Individual, Solitary and Ascetic
3.8.6. Compensation and Spirituality
3.8.7. Life as Narrative

3.9. Education as Learning for Life

3.9.1. Learning Values
3.9.2. Changing Beliefs
3.9.3. Distress/Anxiety
3.9.4. Interest and Enthusiasm in Teaching
3.9.5. What Is It to Be Critical?
3.9.6. Motivating without Conditioning

3.10. What Is Work?

3.10.1. Work as Alienation
3.10.2. Division of Labor
3.10.3. The Concept of Poverty
3.10.4. Inequality
3.10.5. Entrepreneurship and Social Conditions
3.10.6. Work as Fulfillment
3.10.7. Contributing to the Community
3.10.8. Thinking about Exclusion

Module 4. Argumentation and Human Rights

4.1. What Is Meant by Logic?

4.1.1. Proposition, Validity and Inference
4.1.2. Logic in Everyday Speech
4.1.3. Formal Logic and Informal Logic
4.1.4. Logic in Teaching
4.1.5. Logic in Conflict Mediation
4.1.6. Ad Hominem Arguments
4.1.7. When the Agent Matters in Argument

4.2. Contexts of Argumentation

4.2.1. Speaking in Metaphors
4.2.2. Appealing to Emotions
4.2.3. Detecting Conventions
4.2.4. Listening to Those Who Think Differently
4.2.5. Changing One's Own Point of View
4.2.6. Appealing to Science
4.2.7. Appealing to Personal Experience

4.3. Descriptive Concepts and Value Concepts

4.3.1. What Is It to Describe? 
4.3.2. What Is It to Value? 
4.3.3. Concepts that Both Describe and Value
4.3.4. Common Values in Childhood
4.3.5. Common Values in Adolescence
4.3.6. Common Values in Adulthood
4.3.7. Learning to Read Values in Television Series

4.4. Substantiation and Human Rights

4.4.1. Rights and Morals
4.4.2. Natural Rights and Human Rights
4.4.3. Human Rights as a World Fact
4.4.4. How Students Perceive their Basic Rights
4.4.5. Teaching the Value of Human Rights
4.4.6. Teaching Memory Retrieval
4.4.7. Orwell and Human Rights
4.4.8. Effective Democracy

4.5. Our Link to Nature and the Artificial

4.5.1. We Are People
4.5.2. First and Third Persons
4.5.3. Body as Machine
4.5.4. Perceiving Bodies, Perceiving Minds
4.5.5. Nature and Values
4.5.6. The Concept of the Environment
4.5.7. Robotics and People

4.6. Political Concepts and Debate

4.6.1. Basic Tools to Understand Politics
4.6.2. The End of a Debate
4.6.3. Detecting Conflicting Positions
4.6.4. The Concept of Corruption
4.6.5. The Concept of Dictatorship
4.6.6. The Concept of Neoliberalism
4.6.7. Abandoning the Debate

4.7. Art and Politics

4.7.1. Art and Democracy
4.7.2. Art as Social Protest
4.7.3. Art and Understanding
4.7.4. Art as a Fundamental Experience
4.7.5. Art without Authors
4.7.6. The Avant-Garde
4.7.7. Reproducibility

4.8. Teaching Human Rights

4.8.1. Indoctrinating vs. Teaching
4.8.2. The Concept of Teaching
4.8.3. Contexts Conducive to Teaching Philosophy
4.8.4. Networks as a Resource to Promote Philosophy
4.8.5. The Uninformed Teacher
4.8.6. The Passive Pupil
4.8.7. Modalities of Teaching

4.9. Human Rights and Torture

4.9.1. Is It Legitimate for the State to Torture? 
4.9.2. Taking Justice into One's Own Hands
4.9.3. The Perception of Prisons
4.9.4. Foucault and Punitive Power
4.9.5. State Violence vs. Citizen Violence
4.9.6. The Power of Violence and Institutions

4.10. Human Rights and War

4.10.1. Contemporary Wars
4.10.2. The Idea of War to Achieve Peace
4.10.3. The Distinction between Power and Violence
4.10.4. The Danger of Human Extermination
4.10.5. Contemporary Emperors
4.10.6. Land Occupation
4.10.7. War and Social Networks

Module 5. Political Community: Citizenship, Social Ties and Otherness

5.1. Nature

5.1.1. What Is Given, What Is There
5.1.2. What Do We Call Nature? 
5.1.3. Object Demarcation Criteria
5.1.4. Genesis and Ontogenesis
5.1.5. The Leap to Culture
5.1.6. Gregariousness and Community
5.1.7. Mutual Support and Care: The First Form of Bonding
5.1.8. Food and Habitat: Nomadism, Sedentarism and Performativity
5.1.9. Representations: Old Marks in Symbolization
5.1.10. Language: Scribbling on Stone

5.2. Culture

5.2.1. The Founding Artifice
5.2.2. On the Nature of Artifice
5.2.3. Artifice and Truth
5.2.4. Artifice and Humanity
5.2.5. An Inescapable and Normative Second Skin
5.2.6. The Other Who Comes
5.2.7. The Other Who Interpolates
5.2.8. Gathering and Providing Order
5.2.9. The Emergence of 'Morals' 
5.2.10. Law, Order and Justice

5.3. Chaos and Cosmos

5.3.1. Chaos with no Metaphysics
5.3.2. Chaos Sense and Nonsense
5.3.3. The Cosmos as Institution
5.3.4. Sacred and Pagan
5.3.5. The Emergence of Sense, and Its Fragility
5.3.6. Unique Senses. That Which We Call Religion
5.3.7. Plural Senses: The Unsettling Philosophical Inquiry
5.3.8. Cosmos and Political Forms
5.3.9. Cosmos and Community
5.3.10. Cosmos and Telos

5.4. Beasts and Gods

5.4.1. In the Beginning Was 'the Verb': Homer for Us
5.4.2. External to Humans: Beasts
5.4.3. External to Humans: Gods
5.4.4. The Wrath of Extremes
5.4.5. The Spur of the Logos
5.4.6. The Performativity of Logos
5.4.7. Logos and Historicity
5.4.8. The Question of 'the Bestial' in the Present
5.4.9. Modern Gods
5.4.10. Lay Holiness and Politics

5.5. Human Beings

5.5.1. In the Beginning it was 'the Other' 
5.5.2. Death, the Word, Sexuality as Ontogenesis
5.5.3. Logos as Normative Agent
5.5.4. Impossible and Necessary 'Nature'
5.5.5. Ethics, Aesthetics and Asceticism
5.5.6. The Imaginary Institution of Society
5.5.7. Imagination and Truth
5.5.8. Consolidating Meaning to Become Human
5.5.9. Structuring Structures
5.5.10. Ecce Homo to Homo Sapiens

5.6. The State and the Contract

5.6.1. The Necessary Beast Among Us. What Is It, What Does It Do, What Does It Impose and Found?
5.6.2. The Norm and 'the Name of the Father'
5.6.3. Renunciation and Delegation to Make Life 'in Common' Possible 
5.6.4. Freedom in Modernity A Decisive Category in the Idiosyncrasy of the Contemporary Subject
5.6.5. Freedom and Community. The ‘Destiny’ of the Polis
5.6.6. Why Is Freedom a Crucial Category in Contemporary Times? 
5.6.7. 'Thing Subtracted' from the Greeks Today? 
5.6.8. Hobbes among us, in light of the Postmodern Condition
5.6.9. Machiavelli at Last? 
5.6.10. Contemporaneity and State of Exception

5.7. Ties

5.7.1. With 'the Other' in the Body
5.7.2. Subject, Identity, Individual. Chaff and Wheat
5.7.3. A Singularity among 'the Skein' 
5.7.4. Ties, Love, and Dislike… 
5.7.5. Love as a Political Category
5.7.6. Love and Subversion
5.7.7. Love and Scepticism
5.7.8. Cynicism Today
5.7.9. The Drives of the Soul
5.7.10. Perverse Passions

5.8. Citizens

5.8.1.  A Political Attribution
5.8.2. Polis and Citizenship
5.8.3. Liberal Democracies and Citizenship
5.8.4. Post-Democratic Societies and Citizenship
5.8.5. Postmodern Atomization
5.8.6. From Community as Destiny to Self-Entrepreneurship
5.8.7. What Citizenship Today?
5.8.8. Human Rights and Citizenship
5.8.9. Globalization, the Human Condition and Rights of Citizenship
5.8.10. Human Rights and Cruelty

5.9. The Foreigner

5.9.1. What Is Immigration, Who Decides, What Is Proposed?
5.9.2. Where Does the Foreigner Dwell? 
5.9.3. Hospitality, Politics and the Condition of Humanity?
5.9.4. Hostility, Segregation and Fascism
5.9.5. Building an Image of the Abject
5.9.6. Eliminating the Abject
5.9.7. The Human Condition and Cruelty
5.9.8. Aporophobia?
5.9.9. Those 'Swimmers' that Float in the Sea and End Up on Our Shores
5.9.10. What Would Homer Have Said? 

5.10. The Other Among Us

5.10.1. The Other, that Unbearable Interpellation
5.10.2. The Other's Wickedness, One's Own Beauty
5.10.3. "Beautiful Soul": The Forclusion of Responsibility, the Emergence of Hatred and the
5.10.4. Legitimacy of Anger
5.10.5. The Return of the Dark Gods: The Far Right upon Request 
5.10.6. What is Fascism Today?
5.10.7. From Past to Present Concentration Camps
5.10.8. The Logic and Purpose of Concentrationary Devices
5.10.9. What Is on the Horizon?
5.10.10. A Question Staring Us in the Face

Module 6. Teaching Civics in Schools

6.1. School as Community

6.1.1. School and Experience
6.1.2. Learning for Life? 
6.1.3. The Perception of Authority
6.1.4. The Concepts of Childhood and Adolescence
6.1.5. Not Speaking for Students
6.1.6. Repetition and Assessment
6.1.7. International Assessments and Education Policies

6.2. Appealing to Interest

6.2.1. The Relevance of the Contents
6.2.2. Interests and Daily Life
6.2.3. Defining Interests as a Teacher
6.2.4. The Articulation between Content and Interests
6.2.5. The Image of the Teacher as a Referee
6.2.6. Communication with Students
6.2.7. Is It Possible to Be a Peer?

6.3. Citizenship and School

6.3.1. Generating Cooperative Environments
6.3.2. Playing as a Metaphor for Citizenship
6.3.3. Social Commitment
6.3.4. How to Generate Citizenship at School
6.3.5. Appealing to Resources at Hand
6.3.6. Respect for Peers
6.3.7. Thinking about the School's Contributions to the Community

6.4. Social Networks and Citizenship Building

6.4.1. Intervention in Social Networks
6.4.2. Social Networks, Childhood and Adolescence
6.4.3. Instances of Community Generation
6.4.4. On What Trends Are
6.4.5. Philosophical-Political Resources on Social Networks
6.4.6. How to Avoid Falling Prey to Fake News?
6.4.7. What Is Virtual Reality?

6.5. Citizenship and the World of Work

6.5.1. Students' Idea of the World of Work
6.5.2. The Link between Life and Work
6.5.3. The Link between Education and Work
6.5.4. Unproductive Time
6.5.5. Why Should We Like Work?
6.5.6. Working on Oneself
6.5.7. Community and Entrepreneurship

6.6. Who Decides in the Community?

6.6.1. Teaching the Democratic System
6.6.2. Detecting Social Change
6.6.3. How Is a Law Promoted? 
6.6.4. Instances of Democratic Dialogue
6.6.5. Democracy and Participation
6.6.6. Democracy and Consumerism
6.6.7. The Media as a Fourth Power

6.7. How to Complain in the Face of Injustice?

6.7.1. Understanding and Complaints
6.7.2. The Intrinsic Slowness of Democracy
6.7.3. The Use of Poverty in the Media
6.7.4. Thinking about the Needs of the School
6.7.5. How Much Should Be Invested in Education
6.7.6. Using Social Networks to Complain
6.7.7. Argue in Favor of a Proposal

6.8. Considering the Classroom

6.8.1. The Classroom and Diversity
6.8.2. The Classroom and Disability
6.8.3. The Classroom and Standardization
6.8.4. The Classroom and Debate
6.8.5. The Classroom and Fun
6.8.6. Being Peers and Being Students
6.8.7. Solidarity and Exclusion

6.9. Considering the World from the Classroom

6.9.1. Thinking about Violence
6.9.2. Thinking about Gender Perspective
6.9.3. Thinking about Inequality
6.9.4. Thinking about Animal Ethics 
6.9.5. Thinking about Nature
6.9.6. Thinking about the World of Technology: Artificial Intelligence
6.9.7. Thinking about the Control of Information

6.10. Teaching Resources for Thinking about Teaching

6.10.1. Making Arguments Explicit
6.10.2. The Importance of Reconsidering the Question
6.10.3. The Practical in Philosophy
6.10.4. Writing about Philosophy
6.10.5. Digital Resources and Philosophy
6.10.6. Films, Series and Philosophy
6.10.7. Learning Philosophy through Fiction

Module 7. Gender in Question. Feminism(s): Debates, Struggles and Diversions

7.1. The Value of the Humanities in Human Issues

7.1.1. Why the Humanities Today?
7.1.2. Philosophy and Gender Issues, a Gourmet Pairing
7.1.3. Anthropology and Sociology, Approaching Gender through 'the Social' 
7.1.4. Psychoanalysis, the Unwanted Visitor
7.1.5. Transdiscipline and Toolbox
7.1.6. What Kind of Epistemology for What Kind of Issues? 
7.1.7. Knowledges, Colonization and Decolonization
7.1.8. What Is a Subject?
7.1.9. On Subjectivity(ies)?
7.1.10. Our Time. Elusive and Thorny Etchings

7.2. On the Gender Perspective

7.2.1. What Do We Mean When We Talk About Gender Perspective? 
7.2.2. From Women's Studies to Gender Studies
7.2.3. The World Tuned to Gender
7.2.4. Patriarchy and Hegemonic Masculinity
7.2.5. The Mandates of Hegemonic Masculinity
7.2.6. Gender Stereotypes
7.2.7. Gender Socialization
7.2.8. Gender Expectations
7.2.9. Violence

7.3. Analysis of Feminisms: First Wave

7.3.1. First Wave
7.3.2. Enlightened Feminism
7.3.3. The Critique of the Feminine Condition
7.3.4. Attribution of the Feminine Condition
7.3.5. The Civil Rights in Question
7.3.6. Concerning Power: Sexes and Social Relationships
7.3.7. The Controversy of the Masters of Knowledge
7.3.8. The Controversy of the Masters of Wealth
7.3.9. Intellectual References: Olympe de Gouges, Mary Wollstonecraft, Poullain de la Barre

7.4. Analysis of Feminisms: Second Wave

7.4.1. Suffragism
7.4.2. Declaration of Sentiments: Ecce Mulier
7.4.3. Towards Full Citizenship
7.4.4. The Emergence of the Popular Classes
7.4.5. De Jure and De Facto Inequalities
7.4.6. Family, Sexuality and Work
7.4.7. Reference Work: The Forms of Subjection, John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor
7.4.8. Betty Friedan and the Mystique of Femininity
7.4.9. Shulamith Firestone and the Dialectics of Relationships
7.4.10. Simone de Beauvoir and the Second Sex

7.5. Analysis of Feminisms: Third Wave

7.5.1. The Agitated '60s, 'Libertarian Revolutions'
7.5.2. The Transmutation of All Values
7.5.3. A Libertarian Morality among Liberals
7.5.4. The Private as Political
7.5.5. The Politicization of Desire
7.5.6. Denaturalizing / Politicizing / Re-Signifying
7.5.7. A New Epistemology
7.5.8. A Constructivist Anthropology
7.5.9. Structuralism, Post-Structuralism and Beyond
7.5.10. Butler and Identities

7.6. Analysis of Feminisms: Fourth Wave

7.6.1. Since When and Why. A Necessary Justification
7.6.2. Postmodernism and Poststructuralism
7.6.3. The Radicalization of the Political
7.6.4. Sorority as a Battering Ram
7.6.5. Identities? What for? Beyond 
7.6.6. Science as an Ally
7.6.7. Cyborgs
7.6.8. Queers
7.6.9. Sorority as a Battering Ram
7.6.10. Preciado and the Countersexual Manifesto

7.7. Contemporary Debates

7.7.1. Contemporary Debates
7.7.2. The Emergence of Radicalism. Political Postulates in Gender Discourse
7.7.3. Scientific Discourse and Nomadic Identities
7.7.4. Discourse on Gender and Freedoms: Philosophical Approaches
7.7.5. Patriarchy, Does It Still Today? Under What Forms? Reflection
7.7.6. What Is Pedagogy Based on Cruelty?
7.7.7. Conflict and Violence Analysis: Eliminating the Other
7.7.8. Punitiveness and "Death to Males"
7.7.9. The Denial of Sexual Difference
7.7.10. Feminisms, Epochs and Subjectivities

7.8. Debates and Struggles

7.8.1. Towards 'the Revolution'. A New Utopia?
7.8.2. Revolution, Emancipation, Rebellion. Much More than Random Signifiers
7.8.3. Capitalist Discourse and Contestation/Subsumption Practices
7.8.4. Liberation, Freedom and Gender
7.8.5. Does Feminism(s) Understand Sexuality?
7.8.6. Epoch, Revolt and the Voice of the Master
7.8.7. Can any Feminism(s) become Segregationist?
7.8.8. What Kind of Epistemologies for What Kind of Struggles?

7.9. Diversions

7.9.2. Me Too: Corporate Sorority?
7.9.3. Agenda, What Agenda? What Is at Stake?
7.9.4. Public Protests and Public Lynchings: Does the End Justify the Means?
7.9.5. On the Risk of 'Being Talked About'
7.9.6. Battlefield and Strategies
7.9.7. Hegemony and Legitimacy
7.9.8. Is There a Scientific Feminism?
7.9.9. Institutionalization of Conflict and the Party System

7.10. By way of (Un)Conclusion

7.10.1. Gender and 'Attitude in Modernity', from Foucault to Kant
7.10.2. Abandon the Enlightenment?
7.10.3. Why an Ontogenesis for Politics Would Be Necessary
7.10.4. Is a Feminist Policy beyond Possible Normativity?
7.10.5. To Forclude or Not to Forclude, That Is the Question
7.10.6. Of Dead Dogs and their Howling: From Freud to Lacan
7.10.7. A Necessary Debate on Manhood
7.10.8. The Risks of Postulating Posthuman Extremes
7.10.9. In the Meantime... What to Do with the Victims?

Module 8. Science, Technology and Society

8.1. Science and Us

8.1.1. General Considerations
8.1.2. Science as a Cultural Phenomenon
8.1.3. Is There Common-Sense Science?
8.1.3. Is There Common-Sense Science?
8.1.5. Can Science be Neutral?
8.1.6. Technology in the Globalized World
8.1.7. Education, Science and Values

8.2. Scientific Knowledge. Technique and Technology

8.2.1. Common Sense and Knowledge
8.2.2. Doxa and Episteme
8.2.3. Knowledge of the Natural World
8.2.4. Knowledge of the Social World
8.2.5. Theoria, Praxis and Techne
8.2.6. Technical Knowledge
8.2.7. The Intervention of New Technologies

8.3. Epistemology of Science

8.3.1. Introduction: Philosophy and Science
8.3.2. Scientific Knowledge
8.3.3. Scientific Hypotheses
8.3.4. Explain and Predict
8.3.5. Explain and Understand
8.3.6. Social Sciences and Explaining Human Action
8.3.7. Reasons and Causes in Explaining Action

8.4. Scientific Rationality

8.4.1. Introduction: Science as a Rational Enterprise
8.4.2. Rationality and Scientific Progress: Internal and External Factors in the Assessment of Scientific Theories
8.4.3. A Realistic Conception of Science
8.4.4. Rupture and Discontinuity in the Development of Science
8.4.5. Paradigm
8.4.6. Tensions and Anomalies
8.4.7. Scientific Change
8.4.8. Social Science and Paradigms
8.4.9. Epistemological Relativism

8.5. Science and Ideology

8.5.1. The Polysemy of the Concept of Ideology
8.5.2. Objectivity and Ideology
8.5.3. Ideology and Truth
8.5.4. The Limits of Relativism
8.5.5. Conceptual Frameworks and Relativism
8.5.6. The Interaction between Science and Ideology
8.5.7. The Influence of Ideology on Cognitive Processes
8.5.8. Scientism as Ideology
8.5.9. The Limits of Understanding and the Limits of Science

8.6. Science and Values

8.6.1. Norms, Virtues and Epistemic Values
8.6.2. Science and Ethical Values
8.6.3. Modes of Scientific Rationality
8.6.4. Scientific Rationality as Instrumental Rationality
8.6.5. Scientific Rationality as Practical Rationality
8.6.6. Rationality as Means-End Strategy
8.6.7. The Distinction between Ends and Values
8.6.8. Reasons and Good Reasons
8.6.9. Good Reasons Are Reliable

8.7. Technology and Nature

8.7.1. Human Life as a Product of Technology
8.7.2. The Impact of Technology on Societies
8.7.3. Understanding Where We Are
8.7.4. Technoscience and Humanism
8.7.5. Nature and Artificiality
8.7.6. Progress and Utopia
8.7.7. Dehumanize Nature?
8.7.8. A New Configuration of Human Beings?

8.8. From Technique to Technology

8.8.1. The Concept of Technology
8.8.2. The Relation between Technology and Science
8.8.3. The Intellectual Idea of Technology
8.8.4. Philosophical Presuppositions of the Transition from Technique to Technology
8.8.5. Technological Practice
8.8.6. Technology and Public Policy
8.8.7. Technology and Culture
8.8.8. Technoscientific Decisions and the Environment
8.8.9. Technoscientific Decisions and Health

8.9. Social Studies of Science

8.9.1. Introduction: Studies in Science, Technology and Society
8.9.2. Towards a Social Study of Scientific Knowledge
8.9.3. A Critique of the Inherited Conception of Science
8.9.4. From Rationalism to Social Constructivism
8.9.5. Macrosocial Approaches
8.9.6. Microsocial Approaches
8.9.7. Science and Technology as Social Practices
8.9.8. Different Concepts of Practices

8.10. Science, Technology and Society (CTS) and Teaching Values

8.10.1. Knowledge Society and Education
8.10.2. Education as Technology
8.10.3. The Importance of Teaching Values
8.10.4. Teaching to Give Reasons
8.10.5. Beyond the Dichotomy of Teaching Content and Skills and Teaching Values
8.10.6. Teaching Values from an CTS Perspective
8.10.7. Teaching Values and Educational Contexts
8.10.8. Studies in STS as Teaching Resources at School
8.10.9. The Classroom as a Community of Inquiry

Module 9. How and Why to Teach Philosophy?

9.1. Why Educate?

9.1.1. Reasons to Educate
9.1.2. Purpose and Objectives in Education
9.1.3. Education for Life
9.1.4. Philosophy and Using the Useless
9.1.5. Teaching Philosophy, What for? 

9.2. Teaching Philosophy in a Globalized World

9.2.1. Introduction: The Challenge for Philosophy
9.2.2. From Subjectivation to Socialization
9.2.3. Education and Community
9.2.4. Education for Democracy
9.2.5. Education and Recognition of the Other
9.2.6. Education and Multiculturalism
9.2.7. Education for Citizenship
9.2.8. Educating in Ethical Values

9.3. Philosophy and Pedagogy

9.3.1. The Socratic Model of Education
9.3.2. Philosophy as a General Theory of Education
9.3.3. The Development of Critical Thinking as an Educational Ideal
9.3.4. The Relation between Theory and Practice in Education
9.3.5. The Normative Character of Pedagogy
9.3.6. Pedagogy and Didactics

9.4. Education as a Social Practice

9.4.1. The Dimensions of Education
9.4.2. Educational Practice between Techne and Praxis
9.4.3. Instrumental Rationality in Education
9.4.4. Practical Rationality in Education
9.4.5. Discussing Ends in Education
9.4.6. The Debate between Traditional Education and Progressive Education
9.4.7. Characteristics of the Educational Experience

9.5. Teaching and Learning

9.5.1. Teaching: Different Senses and Meanings
9.5.2. Teaching as a Triadic Relationship
9.5.3. Teaching as Capacity Development
9.5.4. Teaching and Information Acquisition
9.5.5. Information and Capacity
9.5.6. Teaching and Critical Thinking
9.5.7. Education and Learning Theories
9.5.8. Neuroscience, Learning and Education
9.5.9. Learning as Problem-Solving

9.6. Teaching Philosophy

9.6.1. Teaching Philosophy as a Philosophical Problem
9.6.2. Traditional Approach
9.6.3. Teaching Philosophy or Philosophical Didactics
9.6.4. Scholars, Laypeople and Apprentices
9.6.5. Philosophy as a Way of Life
9.6.6. Philosophy as Rational Criticism
9.6.7. Teaching Philosophy as a Development of Autonomy
9.6.8. Teaching Philosophy as an Exercise in Freedom

9.7. Philosophy in Schools

9.7.1. The Presence of Philosophy in School: Some Controversies
9.7.2. Teaching Philosophy through the Framework of Other Subjects
9.7.3. Philosophy for Children or Philosophizing with Children
9.7.4. Intermediate Level Philosophy
9.7.5. Teaching Philosophy: For What and How

9.8. Philosophy of Philosophy and Teaching Philosophy

9.8.1. Philosophy as an Academic Discipline
9.8.2. Philosophy and Canon
9.8.3. The State of Exception in Philosophy
9.8.4. Anomaly in Philosophical Reflection 
9.8.5. Philosophy and Its Past
9.8.6. Problematic Approaches and the Historical Approach to Teaching Philosophy

9.9. Strategy for Teaching Philosophy

9.9.1. Resources for Teaching Philosophy
9.9.2. Teaching Philosophy through Educational Technology
9.9.3. Integrating Pedagogical and Curricular Knowledge through Technology
9.9.4. ICT in Teaching Philosophy
9.9.5. Virtual Reality in Teaching Processes: Theoretical Precisions

Module 10. Vital Discussions and Collective Issues

10.1. Recognising the Other

10.1.1. Otherness in Education
10.1.2. Education as an Encounter with the Other
10.1.3. Commonality in Education
10.1.4. Difference and Recognition
10.1.5. Community in Difference
10.1.6. Tolerance or Recognition
10.1.7. Universality and Hegemony

10.2. Recognition and Otherness

10.2.1. Recognition of the Other as a Condition for Education
10.2.2. Equality and Education
10.2.3. Education and Recognition Theories
10.2.4. Intersubjectivity as a Condition for Education
10.2.5. The Other
10.2.6. Us

10.3. Education and Citizenship in the Global Age

10.3.1. School, Citizenship and Democratic Participation
10.3.2. Citizenship and Human Rights Education
10.3.3. Citizenship and Civic Virtues
10.3.4. Global Citizenship Education
10.3.5. Wealth and Poverty in the Global Age

10.4. Education and the Challenge of Interculturality

10.4.1. What Is Multiculturalism?
10.4.2. Intercultural Education in a Multicultural Society
10.4.3. Education and Integration of Ethnic Minorities
10.4.4. The Liberalism-Communitarianism Debate
10.4.5. Pluralism and Universalism
10.4.6. Multiculturalism and Cultural Relativism
10.4.7. Beyond Ethnocentrism
10.4.8. TICS in Intercultural Education

10.5. The Other Who Dwells Among Us

10.5.1. The Other, that Unbearable Interpellation
10.5.2. The Other's Wickedness, One's Own Beauty
10.5.3. 'Beautiful Soul': The Forclusion of Responsibility and the Emergence of Hatred
10.5.4. The Return of Dark Gods.
10.5.5. The Return of the Dark Gods: The Far Right upon Request
10.5.6. What is Fascism Today?
10.5.7. From Past to Present Concentration Camps
10.5.8. The Logic and Purpose of Concentrationary Devices
10.5.9. What Is on the Horizon?
10.5.10. A Question Staring Us in the Face

10.6. Ties, Affections and Environments

10.6.1. Discussions on Individual Rights and Autonomy
10.6.2. Discussion i: Consuming Products and Substances
10.6.3. Discussion II: Addictive Relationships
10.6.4. Discussion III: Love of Others and Self-love
10.6.5. Discussion IV: Family and Friendships
10.6.6. Discussion v: Trust and Distrust: Strangers and Acquaintances
10.6.7. Discussion VI: The Origins of Conflict

10.7. The Environment(s)

10.7.1. Why Should We Care About the Environment(s)? 
10.7.2. Caring For and Creating Environments
10.7.3. Human Ecology and Ways of Life
10.7.4. Is There a Nature?  
10.7.5. The Nature of Thought
10.7.6. The True Nature of Human Beings
10.7.7. The Environment in Large Cities
10.7.8. The Planet and Us

10.8. Education, Sports and Philosophy

10.8.1. Mens Sana in Corpore Sano
10.8.2. Praxis and Education
10.8.3. Collective (Group) Sports, Empathy and Antipathy
10.8.4. Body and Understanding
10.8.5. The Field of Ethics, the Playing Field
10.8.6. Impossible and Unnecessary Neutrality
10.8.7. Soccer and 'Polititeia' (Politics)
10.8.8. Soccer and Globalization
10.8.9. The 'Thinker' Today
10.8.10. Sports and Epochal Subjectivity

10.9. The Threat of Anti-Democratic Practices

10.9.1. Discourse in the Media on Insecurity
10.9.2. Receptiveness of Common-Sense Discourse
10.9.3. Media Discourse on Repression
10.9.4. The End of Political Education
10.9.5. 'Medicalized' Discourse on Society
10.9.6. Trivialization of Politics
10.9.7. Prescriptions to Society
10.9.8. The Imposition of False Dichotomies
10.9.9. The Link between Religions and Society
10.9.10. Philosophical Analysis of Political and Social Situations in Latin America

10.10. Anarchy as an Undesirable Spectre

10.10.1. Anarchism According to Chomsky
10.10.2. Anarchism and Criticism
10.10.3. Capitalism as an Evolution of Thought
10.10.4. Ridicule of Anarchist Thought
10.10.5. The Role of Anarchist Intellectuals
10.10.6. Capitalism in the Common Sense
10.10.7. The Cultural Threat of Anarchism
10.10.8. The Discourse of the Media on the Media
10.10.9. An Alternative to Inequality
10.10.10. The State as a Communal Achievement

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