Veterinary Anesthesiology in Large Animals has undergone great advances in recent years. Get up to speed and incorporate the latest scientific developments into your daily practice by taking this comprehensive Professional Master’s Degree from TECH" 

In the last 20 years, Veterinary Anesthesia in Large Animals has experienced significant advances thanks to the introduction of new techniques and drugs, as well as the development of monitors and specialized anesthetic machines.

The introduction of novel surgical techniques has resulted in the need to develop new anesthetic protocols. There is a growing concern about the impact of anesthesia and analgesia on animal welfare and the final outcome of surgical procedures. 

The Professional Master’s Degree in Veterinary Anesthesiology in Large Animals is programmed as a response to the need of clinical veterinarians to expand their expertise in anesthetic and analgesic protocols and techniques in large animals.  

The teaching team for this Professional Master’s Degree is made up of professionals specialized in Veterinary Anesthesiology in Large Animals, with extensive experience in teaching, both in undergraduate and graduate programs, most of them being university professors and graduates. These professors are practicing anesthesiologists at leading veterinary centers and directors or participants in various research projects, so that in addition to teaching and clinical work they also carry out research activities. 

The topics covered in this Professional Master’s Degree have been selected with the aim of offering a complete specialization in anesthesia, so that the student builds specific knowledge to safely address any situation that requires general or locoregional anesthesia and analgesia in ruminants, swine, camelids and equids.

At present, one of the issues that affects continuous postgraduate development is the reconciliation of work and personal life. Modern professional demands make it difficult to provide quality, specialized, on-site education, so the online format will allow students to combine this course with their daily professional practice.  

The training offered by this program is aimed at experienced clinical veterinarians who wish to specialize in the field of Veterinary Anesthesiology in Large Animals in order to provide comprehensive and high-quality care to clients, meeting the current demands for highly specialized training in veterinary medicine. 

You will explore and broaden your knowledge of the vital signs that must be monitored during general anesthesia or sedation of the equine patient" 

This Professional Master’s Degree in Veterinary Anesthesiology in Large Animals contains the most complete and up-to-date scientific program on the market. The most important features include: 

  • The latest technology in online teaching software
  • Intensely visual teaching system, supported by graphic and schematic contents, easy to assimilate and understand
  • Case studies presented by practising experts
  • State-of-the-art interactive video systems
  • Teaching supported by telepractice
  • Continuous updating and recycling systems
  • Autonomous learning: full compatibility with other occupations
  • Practical exercises for self-evaluation and learning verification
  • Support groups and educational synergies: questions to the expert, debate and knowledge forums
  • Communication with the teacher and work for individual reflection
  • Content that is accessible from any fixed or portable device with an Internet connection
  • Supplementary documentation databases which are permanently available, even after the program

A Professional Master’s Degree that will enable you to work as an anesthesiologist in veterinary medicine, with the competence of a high-level professional" 

The teaching team is made up of professionals from different fields within this specialism. In this way, TECH ensures that it delivers educational results in line with its objectives. A multidisciplinary team of professionals, trained and experienced in different environments, who will develop the theoretical knowledge in an efficient way, but above all, they will bring their practical knowledge from their own experience to the program: one of the differential qualities of this training. 

This mastery of the subject is complemented by the effectiveness of the methodological design used in this Professional Master’s Degree in Veterinary Anesthesiology in Large Animals. Developed by a multidisciplinary team of e-Learning experts, it integrates the latest advances in educational technology. Students will be able to study with a range of convenient and versatile multimedia tools that will give them the operability they need while specializing in the subject.  

The design of this program is based on Problem-Based Learning: an approach that views learning as a highly practical process. To achieve this remotely, TECH will use telepractice: with the help of an innovative, interactive video system, and Learning from an Expert, students will be able to acquire the knowledge as if they were facing the case they are learning in real time. A concept that will allow students to integrate and memorize what they have learnt in a more realistic and permanent way. 

You will have the experience of expert professionals who will contribute their experience in this area to the program, making this course a unique opportunity for professional growth"

With a methodological design based on proven teaching techniques, this training will take you through different teaching approaches to allow you to learn in a dynamic and effective way”


The contents of this Professional Master’s Degree have been developed by a range of experts.  A very complete and well-structured program that will propel the student to the highest standards of quality and success.   

This Professional Master’s Degree in Veterinary Anesthesiology in Large Animals contains the most complete and up-to-date scientific program on the market” 

Module 1. Physiology Applied to Anesthesia in Large Animals 

1.1. Physiology Applied to Anesthesia 

1.1.1. Introduction 
1.1.2. History of Anesthesia in Large Animals  

1.2. Cardiovascular System Physiology in Horses 

1.2.1. Cardiac Anatomy 
1.2.2. Cardiac Electrophysiology 
1.2.3. Mechanic Cardiac Function 
1.2.4. Vascular System 

1.3. Respiratory System Physiology in Horses I 

1.3.1. Anatomy of the Respiratory System 
1.3.2. Pulmonary Ventilation 

1.4. Respiratory System Physiology in Horses II 

1.4.1. Pulmonary Blood Circulation 
1.4.2. Gas Exchange 
1.4.3. Breathing Control 

1.5. Digestive System in the Horse 

1.5.1. Anatomy of the Digestive System 
1.5.2. Nervous and Hormonal Control of Digestive Function 

1.6. Horse Renal System 

1.6.1. Anatomy of the Renal System 
1.6.2. Urine Formation 
1.6.3. Effects of Anesthetics on Renal Function 

1.7. Horse Nervous System 

1.7.1. Central Nervous System Anatomy 
1.7.2. Anatomy of the Peripheral Nervous System 
1.7.3. Neuronal Function 
1.7.4. Assessment of Neurological Function During Anesthesia 

1.8. Autonomous Nervous System and Anesthetic-Related Stress 

1.8.1. Autonomic Nervous System 
1.8.2. Stress Response Associated with Anesthesia 

1.9. Anatomy and Physiology of Small and Large Ruminants 

1.9.1. Applied Anatomy of Large Ruminants 
1.9.2. Applied Physiology of Large Ruminants 
1.9.3. Applied Anatomy of Small Ruminants 
1.9.4. Applied Physiology of Small Ruminants 

1.10. Anatomy and Physiology of Swine and Camelids 

1.10.1. Applied Anatomy of Swine 
1.10.2. Applied Physiology of Swine 
1.10.3. Applied Anatomy of Camelids 
1.10.4. Applied Physiology of Camelids

Module 2. Evaluation, Preanesthetic Preparation and Sedation in Large Animals 

2.1. Physical Examination and Blood Analysis  
2.2. Anesthetic Risk and Preanesthetic Preparation in the Equine Patient 
2.3. Pharmacology of Injectable Drugs in Horses 

2.3.1. Important Pharmacokinetic Concepts 
2.3.2. Important Pharmacodynamic Concepts 
2.3.3. Physiological and Pathological Factors that Modify Pharmacological Properties 
2.3.4. Pharmacological Interactions 
2.3.5. Routes of Administration 

2.4. Phenothiazines 

2.4.1. Action Mechanism 
2.4.2. Pharmacology 
2.4.3. Clinical Use and Antagonism 
2.4.4. Complications and Adverse Effects 

2.5. Benzodiazepines 

2.5.1. Action Mechanism 
2.5.2. Pharmacology 
2.5.3. Clinical Use and Antagonism 
2.5.4. Complications and Adverse Effects 

2.6. Adrenergic Alpha-2 Receptor Agonists 

2.6.1. Action Mechanism 
2.6.2. Pharmacology 
2.6.3. Clinical Use and Antagonism 
2.6.4. Complications and Adverse Effects 

2.7. Opioids 

2.7.1. Action Mechanism 
2.7.2. Pharmacology 
2.7.3. Clinical Use and Antagonism 
2.7.4. Complications and Adverse Effects 

2.8. Sedation for In-Station Procedures 

2.8.1. Types of Procedures  
2.8.2. Clinical Objectives 
2.8.3. Administration Methods 
2.8.4. Prescribed Combinations 

2.9. Evaluation and Anesthetic Preparation in Ruminants, Swine and Camelids 
2.10. Special Pharmacological Considerations for Ruminant, Swine and Camelid Patients. 

2.10.1. Small Ruminants
2.10.2. Large Ruminants 
2.10.3. Swine 
2.10.4. Camelids  

Module 3. Induction of General Anesthesia in Large Animals 

3.1. Dissociative Anesthetics (Ketamine) 

3.1.1. Pharmacology 
3.1.2. Side Effects 
3.1.3. Contraindications 
3.1.4. Dosage and Protocol 

3.2. Barbiturates (Thiopental) 

3.2.1. Pharmacology 
3.2.2. Side Effects 
3.2.3. Contraindications 
3.2.4. Dosage and Protocol 

3.3. Propofol, Alfaxalone, Etomidate 

3.3.1. Pharmacology 
3.3.2. Side Effects 
3.3.3. Contraindications 
3.3.4. Dosage and Protocol   

3.4. Benzodiazepines and Guaifenesin 

3.4.1. Pharmacology 
3.4.2. Side Effects 
3.4.3. Contraindications 
3.4.4. Dosage and Protocol 

3.5. Main Takedown Techniques in the Equine Patient   
3.6. Endotracheal Intubation, Nasotracheal Intubation and Tracheostomy in the Equine Patient 
3.7. Physiological Consequences of Different Decubitus, Padding and Limb Positioning in the Equine Patient  
3.8. Special Considerations in the Induction Period for Large and Small Ruminants. 

3.8.1. Pharmacology Inducing Agents 
3.8.2. Takedown Techniques 
3.8.3. Intubation Techniques 

3.9. Special Considerations in the Induction Period for Swine and Camelids 

3.9.1. Pharmacology Inducing Agents 
3.9.2. Takedown Techniques 
3.9.3. Intubation Techniques 

3.10. Positioning of the Ruminant, Swine and Camelid Patient after Induction 

Module 4. General Anesthesia and Equipment in Large Animals 

4.1. Anesthetic Equipment (I) 

4.1.1. Anesthetic Machine.  
4.1.2. Circular Circuit  

4.2. Anesthetic Equipment (II) 

4.2.1. Mechanical Ventilators 
4.2.2. Demand Valve 

4.3. General Information on Inhalation Anesthesia 

4.3.1. Pharmacokinetics of Inhalation Agents (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination, Physical and Chemical Characteristics) 
4.3.2. Pharmacodynamics of Inhalation Agents (CNS Effects, Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects, Other Effects) 
4.3.3. Inhalation Agents Isoflurane Sevoflurane

4.4. Partial and Total Intravenous Anesthesia (PIVA and TIVA) 

4.4.1. Injectable Agents Used and Techniques 

4.5. Neuromuscular Blockers

4.5.1. Action Mechanism  
4.5.2. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics 
4.5.3. Monitoring 
4.5.4. Pharmacology of Reversing Agents  

4.6. General Anesthesia in Other Species (Small and Large Ruminants, Swine and Camelids) 
4.7. Mechanical Ventilation 

4.7.1. Respiratory Mechanism 
4.7.2. Consequences of VM 
4.7.3. Ventilatory Parameters  

4.8. Mechanical Ventilation in Other Species (Small and Large Ruminants, Swine and Camelids) 
4.9. Anesthetic Recovery

4.9.1. Recovery Techniques  
4.9.2. Patient Preparation 
4.9.3. Box Preparation

4.10. Anesthetic Recovery (Small and Large Ruminants, Swine and Camelids)

Module 5. Monitoring in Large Animals 

5.1. The Anesthetic Record 
5.2. Anesthetic Depth Monitoring 
5.3. Monitoring of CV and Hemodynamic Status. (I) 

5.3.1. Clinical Monitoring 
5.3.2. Electrocardiogram 

5.4. Monitoring of CV and Hemodynamic Status. (II) 

5.4.1. Indirect Arterial Pressure Oscillometry Doppler 

5.4.2. Direct Blood Pressure 

5.5. Monitoring of in Oxygenation Status. (I) 

5.5.1. Clinical Monitoring 
5.5.2. Arterial Blood Gas (PaO2) 

5.6. Monitoring of Oxygenation Status (II) 

5.6.1. Pulse Oximetry 

5.7. Monitoring of Ventilation Status (I) 

5.7.1. Clinical Monitoring 
5.7.2. Arterial Blood Gas (PaCO2) 

5.8. Monitoring of Ventilation Status (II) 

5.8.1. Capnography 

5.9. Other Types of Monitoring 

5.9.1. Temperature 
5.9.2. Glucose 
5.9.3. Lactate 
5.9.4. Ions 
5.9.5. Neurostimulation 
5.9.6. Others 

5.10. Monitoring in Other Species (Small and Large Ruminants, Swine and Camelids) 

5.10.1. Monitoring Considerations for Small Ruminants 
5.10.2. Monitoring Considerations for Large Ruminants  
5.10.3. Monitoring Considerations for Swine 
5.10.4. Monitoring Considerations for Camelids

Module 6. Analgesia in Large Animals   

6.1. Definition of Pain and Pathophysiology of Pain 

6.1.1. Definition of Pain 
6.1.2. Types of Pain 
6.1.3. Pathophysiology of Pain Nociceptors Axons Neurotransmitters Nociception Monitoring 

6.2. Multimodal and Preventative Analgesia 

6.2.1. Clinical Analgesia 
6.2.2. Multimodal Analgesia 
6.2.3. Preventative Analgesia   

6.3. Consequences of Untreated Pain 
6.4. Pain Detection Systems 

6.4.1. Physiological Signs 
6.4.2. Equine Pain Scales 
6.4.3. Pain Scales in Other Species 

6.5. Opioids 

6.5.1. Pharmacology 
6.5.2. Side Effects 
6.5.3. Contraindications 
6.5.4. Clinical Use 

6.6. NSAIDs 

6.6.1. Pharmacology 
6.6.2. Side Effects 
6.6.3. Contraindications
6.6.4. Clinical Use 

6.7. Agents α2 Agonists 

6.7.1. Pharmacology 
6.7.2. Side Effects 
6.7.3. Contraindications 
6.7.4. Clinical Use

6.8. Ketamine and Lidocaine 

6.8.1. Ketamine Pharmacology Side Effects Contraindications Clinical Use 

6.8.2. Lidocaine Pharmacology Side Effects Contraindications Clinical Use 

6.9. Others: Gabapentin, Amantadine, Amitriptyline, Tramadol, Paracetamol 

6.9.1. Gabapentin Pharmacology Side Effects Contraindications Clinical Use 

6.9.2. Amantadine Pharmacology Side Effects Contraindications Clinical Use 

6.9.3. Amitriptyline Pharmacology Side Effects Contraindications Clinical Use 

6.9.4. Tramadol Pharmacology Side Effects Contraindications Clinical Use 

6.9.5. Paracetamol Pharmacology Side Effects Contraindications Clinical Use 

6.10. Pharmacology in Other Species (Small and Large Ruminants, Swine and Camelids) 

6.10.1. Observations on Pharmacology Analgesics in Small Ruminants 
6.10.2. Observations on Pharmacology Analgesics in Large Ruminants 
6.10.3. Observations on Pharmacology Analgesics in Swine 
6.10.4. Observations on Pharmacology Analgesics in Camelids

Module 7. Locoregional Anesthesia in Large Animals 

7.1. Pharmacology of Local Anesthetics 

7.1.1. Action Mechanism 
7.1.2. Clinical Differences 
7.1.3. Complications 
7.1.4. Adjuvants 

7.2. Instruments and Equipment 

7.2.1. Needles  
7.2.2. Neurostimulation 
7.2.3. Ultrasound 

7.3. Locoregional Head Blocks (i) 

7.3.1. Maxillary Nerve Block 
7.3.2. Infraorbital Nerve Block 
7.3.3. Mandibular Nerve Block 
7.3.4. Mentonian Nerve Block 

7.4. Locoregional Head Blocks (ii) 

7.4.1. Backbulbar/Peribulbar Block 
7.4.2. Eyelid Block 
7.4.3. Auriculopalpebral Block 
7.4.4. Ear Block 
7.4.5. Cervical Block 

7.5.  Locoregional Forelimb Blocks 

7.5.1. Surgical Blocks   

7.6.  Locoregional Hind Limb Blocks 

7.6.1. Surgical Blocks 

7.7.  Locoregional Laparotomy Blocks 

7.7.1. Paravertebral Lumbar Block 
7.7.2. Inverted "L" Block and Infiltration 
7.7.3. Flat Transverse Abdominal Block 

7.8.  Epidural Anesthesia 

7.8.1. Realization of a Single Technique 
7.8.2. Epidural Catheter Placement 
7.8.3. Drugs Used 

7.9.  Locoregional Anesthesia for Large Ruminants

7.9.1. Most Common Techniques 

7.10.  Locoregional Anesthesia for Small Ruminants, Swine and Camelids 

7.10.1. Most Common Techniques

Module 8. Anesthetic Complications and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation 

8.1. Morbidity and Mortality  

8.1.1. Mortality General Considerations Mortality Studies Mortality Compared Risk Factors Related to the Horse Related to Surgical Procedure Related to Anesthesia Causes of Death Related to Anesthesia Cardiovascular Respiratory Others 

8.1.2.  Morbidity 

8.2.  Complications in Premedication and Induction I 

8.2.1. Intra-arterial and Perivascular Injection 
8.2.2. Anaphylactic Reactions 
8.2.3. Drug-Induced Priapism  
8.2.4. Incomplete or Inadequate Sedation/Induction 

8.3.  Complications in Premedication and Induction II 

8.3.1. Hypoventilation 
8.3.2. Inability to Intubate/Laryngeal Trauma 
8.3.3. Hypotension. 

8.4.  Complications in Maintenance I 

8.4.1. Hypoxemia 
8.4.2. Hypercapnia 
8.4.3. Inadequate Anesthetic Plan and Alternative Anesthetic Plans 
8.4.4. Malignant Hyperthermia 

8.5.  Complications in Maintenance II 

8.5.1. Hypotension. 
8.5.2. Hypertension 
8.5.3. Bleeding Alterations in Heart Rate and Rhythm

8.6.  Complications in Recuperation I 

8.6.1. Hypoxemia/Hypercapnia 
8.6.2. Nasal Edema 
8.6.3. Airway Obstruction 
8.6.4. Pulmonary Edema 
8.6.5. Fractures and Soft Tissue Damage 
8.6.6. Neuropathologies 
8.6.7. Myopathies 

8.7.  Complications in Recovery II 

8.7.1. Myelopathies 
8.7.2. Periodic Hyperkalemia Paralysis 
8.7.3. Delay/Excitation in Recovery 
8.7.4. Immediate Postoperative Complications 
8.7.5. Human Error 

8.8.  Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) I 

8.8.1. Causes of Cardiopulmonary Emergencies 
8.8.2. Diagnosis of Cardiopulmonary Emergencies 
8.8.3. Cardiac Massage 
8.8.4. CPR Maneuver Foal CPR Maneuver Adult CPR Maneuver 

8.9.  Complications in Small and Large Ruminants 

8.9.1. Complications Associated with Poor Patient Positioning
8.9.2. Cardiovascular Complications
8.9.3. Tympanism, Regurgitation, Salivation
8.9.4. Respiratory Complications.
8.9.5. Hypothermia.
8.9.6. Other Complications 

8.10. Complications in Ruminants, Swine and Camelids 

8.10.1. Complications Related to Improper Placement of Ruminants, Swine and Camelids 
8.10.2. Cardiovascular Complications in Ruminants, Swine and Camelids 
8.10.3. Respiratory Complications in Ruminants, Swine and Camelids 
8.10.4. Digestive Complications in Ruminants and Camelids Anesthetic Recovery Complications in Ruminants, Swine and Camelids Complications Associated with Intravenous Catheterization in Ruminants, Swine and Camelids Complications Related to Endotracheal Intubation in Swine Malignant Hyperthermia in the Porcine Patient

Module 9. Fluid Therapy in Large Animals   

9.1. Physiology: Bodily Water and Electrolytes

9.1.1. Physiological Body Spaces 
9.1.2. Fluid Balance 
9.1.3. Sodium Physiology and Alterations 
9.1.4. Potassium Physiology and Alterations 
9.1.5. Calcium Physiology and Alterations 
9.1.6. Chlorine Physiology and Alterations 
9.1.7. Magnesium Physiology and Alterations 

9.2. Acid-Base Balance I

9.2.1. Regulation of Acid-Base Homeostasis 
9.2.2. Consequences of Acid-Base Alterations 
9.2.3. Interpretation of Acid-Base Status Traditional Method New Approaches

9.3. Acid-Base Balance II

9.3.1. Metabolic Acidosis 
9.3.2. Respiratory Acidosis 
9.3.3. Metabolic Alkalosis 
9.3.4. Respiratory Alkalosis
9.3.5. Mixed Alterations 

9.4. Catheterization in the Equine Patient

9.4.1. Catheter Selection 
9.4.2. Catheterization Points 
9.4.3. Catheter Placement and Maintenance 

9.5. Catheterization Complications

9.5.1. Thrombophlebitis 
9.5.2. Catheter Breakage 
9.5.3. Perivascular Injection 
9.5.4. Venous Air Embolism 
9.5.5. Exsanguination 

9.6. Clinical Examination of Water Status in the Equine Patient 

9.6.1. Physical Examination 
9.6.2. Laboratorial Parameters 
9.6.3. Hemodynamic Parameters

9.7. Types of Fluid I 

9.7.1. Replacement Fluids 
9.7.2. Maintenance Fluids 

9.8. Types of Fluid II

9.8.1. Colloids 

9.9. Transfusion of Blood Derivatives 

9.9.1. Plasma 
9.9.2. Erythrocyte Concentrate 
9.9.3. Whole Blood 
9.9.4. Complications

9.10. Fluid Therapy in Ruminants, Swine and Camelids 

9.10.1. Physiology Applied to Fluid Therapy in these Species 
9.10.2. Isotonic, Hypertonic and Hypotonic Solutions Available for These Species 
9.10.3. Colloid Solutions Available for These Species 
9.10.4. Fluid Therapy for the Perioperative Period in These Species 
9.10.5. Imbalances of Glycemia and Ions and Their Correction through Fluid Therapy in These Species 

Module 10. Cases and Special Clinical Situations in Large Animals 

10.1. Special In-Station Cases for Equines 

10.1.1. Diagnostic Procedures (TC, IRM) 
10.1.2. Laryngeal Surgery 
10.1.3. Laparoscopy 
10.1.4. Dental Procedures 
10.1.5. Ophthalmologic Procedures 
10.1.6. Perineal Surgeries  
10.1.7. Obstetric Maneuvers 

10.2. Anesthesia Special Cases in Equine (I) 

10.2.1. Geriatric Patient 
10.2.2. Approach Acute Abdominal Syndrome 
10.2.3. Cesarean Section  

10.3. Anesthesia Special Cases in Equines (II)

10.3.1. Elective Anesthetic Management in Foals 
10.3.2. Urgent Anesthetic Management in Foals 

10.4. Anesthesia Special Cases in Equines (III) 

10.4.1. Anesthetic Management of Respiratory Surgery 
10.4.2. Anesthetic Management of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures for Pathologies of the Nervous System 

10.5. Anesthesia in Special Cases in Ruminants 

10.5.1. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management in Orthopedic Procedures in Ruminants
10.5.2. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management for Wounds, Bruises and Abscesses in Ruminants
10.5.3. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management Laparotomy in Ruminants
10.5.4. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management in Obstetric and Procedures in Ruminants
10.5.5. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management of Procedures for Distal Extremities, Hooves and Horns in Ruminants
10.5.6. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management of Specific Procedures for Udders and Teats in Ruminants
10.5.7. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management of Procedures for Eyes and Adjacent Areas in Ruminants
10.5.8. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management of Surgical Procedures for Umbilical Hernia Resolution in Ruminants
10.5.9. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management for Perianal and Tail Areas in Ruminants 

10.6. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Donkeys and Mules 

10.6.1. Anatomical, Physiological and Behavioral Variations
10.6.2. Reference Values Required for Anesthesia
10.6.3. Variations in Responses to Common Drugs Used in Anesthesia 
10.6.4. Premedication and Sedation for Foot Procedures in Donkeys and Mules
10.6.5. Induction and Maintenance Anesthesiology: Injectable and Inhalation Techniques
10.6.6. Anesthetic Monitoring
10.6.7. Recovery from Anesthesia
10.6.8. Preoperative, Intraoperative and Postoperative Analgesia
10.6.9. Local Anesthetic Techniques in Donkeys and Mules 

10.7. Anesthesia in Special Cases for Swine and Camelids

10.7.1. Intraoperative and Perioperative Anesthetic Management in Field Anesthesia in Swine
10.7.2. Castration in Piglets Analgesic and Anesthetic Considerations
10.7.3. The Vietnamese Pig Intraoperative and Perioperative Anesthetic Management and Most Frequent Complications
10.7.4. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management of the Pig as a Model for Transplantation and Cardiovascular Models
10.7.5. Anesthetic Considerations and Perioperative Management of the Pig as a Model for Laparoscopy
10.7.6. Intraoperative and Perioperative Anesthetic Management in Field Anesthesia for Camelids 
10.7.7. Castration for the Alpaca Analgesic and Anesthetic Considerations

10.8. Anesthesia Therapy in Wild Ruminants, Swine and Camelids

10.8.1. Considerations for Chemical Immobilization and Anesthesia for the Bovidae and Antilocapridae Family
10.8.2. Considerations for Chemical Immobilization and Anesthesia in the Capridae Subfamily
10.8.3. Considerations for Chemical Immobilization and Anesthesia in the Cervidae, Tragulidae and Mochidae Families
10.8.4. Considerations for Chemical Immobilization and Anesthesia in the Suidae and Tayassuidae Family
10.8.5. Considerations for Chemical Immobilization and Anesthesia in the Family Camelidae

10.9. Special Considerations: Food Animals/Experimental Animals (Ruminants and Swine) 

10.9.1. Legislation Applicable to the Anesthesia of Animals Intended for Human Consumption 
10.9.2. Anesthetic and Analgesic Considerations for Animals Intended for Human Consumption
10.9.3. Legislation Applicable to the Anesthesia of Animals for Experimention
10.9.4. Anesthetic and Analgesic Considerations in Ruminants and Swine

10.10. Euthanasia 

10.10.1. General Considerations Geriatric Horse 

10.10.2. Mechanisms of action for Hypothermia. 
10.10.3. Chemical Euthanasia Methods 
10.10.4. Physical Euthanasia Methods 
10.10.5. Euthanasia Protocol 
10.10.6. Confirmation of Death

A comprehensive teaching program, structured in well-developed teaching units, oriented towards learning that is compatible with your personal and professional life"